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Duikers, Cephalophinae




Subfamily Cephalophinae (Duikers)
Genus Cephalophus
Abbott's Duiker, Cephalophus spadix
Ader's Duiker, Cephalophus adersi
Bay Duiker, Cephalophus dorsalis
Black Duiker, Cephalophus niger
Black-fronted Duiker, Cephalophus nigrifrons
   Rwenzori Red Duiker, Cephalophus nigrifrons rubidus
Brooke's Duiker, Cephalophus brookei
Harvey's Duiker, Cephalophus harveyi

Jentink's Duiker, Cephalophus jentinki
Ogilby's Duiker, Cephalophus ogilbyi
Peters's Duiker, Cephalophus callipygus
Red-flanked Duiker, Cephalophus rufilatus
Red Forest Duiker, Cephalophus natalensis
Ruwenzori Duiker, Cephalophus rubidis
Weyns's Duiker, Cephalophus weynsi
White-bellied Duiker, Cephalophus leucogaster
Yellow-backed Duiker, Cephalophus silvicultor
Zebra Duiker, Cephalophus zebra

Genus Philantomba
Blue Duiker, Philantomba monticola
Maxwell's Duiker, Philantomba maxwellii
Walter's Duiker, Philantomba walteri

Genus Sylvicapra
Common Duiker, Sylvicapra grimmia

A duiker is any of about 21 small to medium-sized antelope species from the subfamily Cephalophinae
native to Sub-Saharan

Duikers are shy and elusive creatures with a fondness for dense cover; most are forest dwellers and even the species
living in more open areas are quick to disappear into thickets. Their name comes from the Afrikaans/Dutch word for diver
and refers to their practice of diving into tangles of shrubbery.

With a slightly arched body and the front legs a little shorter than the hind legs, they are well-shaped to penetrate thickets
. They are primarily browsers rather than grazers, eating leaves, shoots, seeds, fruit, buds and bark, and often follow
flocks of birds or troops of monkeys to take advantage of the fruit they drop. They supplement their diet with meat:
duikers take insects and carrion from time to time, and even stalk and capture rodents or small birds.
The Blue Duiker has a fondness for ants.


Abbott's Duiker, Cephalophus spadix


Adult Abbott's duiker, Cephalophus spadix
Photographed December 2003 in a camera trap, Mwanihana Forest, Udzungwa Mountains,

© Copyright Francesco Rivero, 2003, http://www.ultimateungulate.com

Abbott's Duiker, Cephalophus spadix, also known as Minde in Swahili, is a large forest dwelling Duiker (small antelope)
found only in a couple of scattered enclaves in Tanzania. It is believed by some to be a subspecies of the
Yellow-backed Duiker. It is very rare and the first photograph was taken as recently as 2003.

Abbott's Duikers stand around 65 cm tall at the shoulder and weigh approximately 55 kg . Abbott's Duikers have a glossy,
dark brown coat which is lighter on the underside. The face is paler and gray in color, and there is a large red tuft
on the forehead. Abbott's Duiker have short thin horns of 8 to 12 cm .

ARKive species - Abbott’s duiker (Cephalophus spadix)
Abbott’s duiker (Cephalophus spadix)
Video: Trevor Jones . Audio: Natural FX
http://www.arkive.org

Abbott's Duiker is endemic to Tanzania, occur in the Eastern Arc Mountains, Mount Kilimanjo, and South Highlands
in scattered populations. They live in mainly in wet forests and swamps at between 1,700 and 2,700 metres above sea level,
but can sometimes wander to much higher altitudes at 4,000 m.

They eat mainly fruit and possibly other plant matter. Abbott's Duiker are nocturnal, spending the days at rest in thickets.
They form regular pathways through the undergrowth, making them relatively easy to find. If threatened they generally try
to run, though they have been known to kill pursuing dogs when left with no escape route.

There are estimated to be less than 1,500 Abbott's Duiker left in the world, and there is no captive population.
They are threatened by habitat destruction and hunting.


Ader's Duiker, Cephalophus adersi

Ader's Duiker, Cephalophus adersi
Ader's Duiker, Cephalophus adersi, is the most highly threatened duiker in the world.
Listed as Critically Endangered as there has been an observed decline on Zanzibar from 5,000 individuals (1983),
to 2,000 (1996) to 640 (1999). There are no recent population estimates, but on the basis that the known
reasons for the decline are still occurring (i.e., a continued decline in the area and quality of habitat due to illegal
wood-cutting, and the continuation of illegal hunting), it is suspected that the population will continue to decline
at a similar rate.

Aders’ Duiker has been protected under Zanzibar law since 1919, while in Kenya Aders’ Duiker is a
protected species. In Zanzibar, the newly designated Jozani-Chakwa Bay National Park has secured part
of the Aders’ Duiker range within a strictly protected area. Another important subpopulation in Kiwengwa Forest is now protected as a nature reserve. In Kenya, the Arabuko-Sokoke Forest is designated as a National
Park, part of which is a strict nature reserve.

Conservation education programmes have had some success in increasing awareness in rural areas in both Kenya and Zanzibar. However, in Zanzibar a lot of work is still required in urban areas, the main market for firewood.

Trophy hunting has also been suggested in Zanzibar as a conservation tool. However, for such a rare species,
the likely success of this programme must be investigated thoroughly. The status of Aders’ Duiker needs to be
monitored closely so the efficacy of the recovery plans can be judged and, if necessary, altered. A simple research programme to understand more about the behavioural and population ecology of Aders’ Duiker is necessary.[2]


Black-fronted Duiker, Cephalophus nigrifrons


Black-fronted Duiker, Cephalophus nigrifrons
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cephalophe_a_front_noir.jpg


The Black-fronted Duiker, Cephalophus nigrifrons, is a small antelope found in central and west-central Africa.
It averages 10 kg and a shoulder height of 43 cm. It has been found as far south as northern Angola.
The species remains reasonably widespread with a total population in the order of 300,000.

A number of subspecies are recognized, including a highly distinctive subspecies, the Rwenzori Red Duiker
Cephalophus nigrifrons rubidus, which may be a separate species, in the alpine and subalpine zones of the
Rwenzori Mountains on the Uganda/Congo-Kinshasa border.

ARKive video - Black-fronted duiker - overview
Black-fronted duiker - overview
BBC Natural History Unit
http://www.arkive.org

The Black-fronted Duiker occurs widely in swamp forests and alongside watercourses within the equatorial forest zone,
from south-eastern Nigeria to the Albertine Rift, and in isolated montane forests in East Africa.
The Nigerian population occurs in the Niger Delta and is probably disjunct from the nearest known population in
Cameroon . Isolated populations of this species were recorded on Mounts Cameroon, Kupe and Manengube,
but identification was uncertain..

Cephalophus nigrifrons rubidus is confined to the Ruwenzori Mtns at altitudes of 1,300-4,200 m, although it is thus far
only recorded from the Ugandan side.

East (1999) produced a total population estimate of about 300,000. Population trends are probably downwards over
large parts of the species’ range, except for areas where hunting pressures are low because of low human
population densities and/or active protection.

East (1999) suggested that the population of the Rwenzori Red Duiker may number at least in the thousands.

Habitat and Ecology: Tropical forests of central Africa ranging from lowland swamp forest and seasonally flooded forest
with poorly drained or permanently saturated soils (where it is frequently encountered along streams and in marshy areas)
to montane forests, subalpine vegetation zones, bamboo, and moorland on Mounts Elgon and Kenya and the Aberdares.
Text for the black fronted duiker: [1]


Peters's Duiker, Cephalophus callipygus


Adult Peters's duiker, Cephalophus callipygus, September 2003
Lopé National Park, Gabon

© Copyright Brent Huffman, 2003 , http://www.ultimateungulate.com


Peter's Duiker, Cephalophus callipygus, is a small antelope found in Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, southern Cameroon
and northern Republic of Congo.

Peter's Duikers weigh about 18 kilograms on average, and are about 50 centimeters at the shoulder.
They have a grey-brown coat.

ARKive video - Peter's duiker - overview
Peter's duiker - overview
BBC Natural History Unit
http://www.arkive.org


Found in areas with relatively undisturbed or primary forests, but also present in logged forest with dense undergrowth;
sometimes recorded in secondary forest and farm-bush

The total population is estimated at 380,000 individuals, with a declining trend.


Red Forest Duiker, Cephalophus natalensis

ARKive video - Natal duiker - overview
Natal duiker - overview
Video: Doug and Denise Norris, Audio: Natural FX
http://www.arkive.org


Yellow-backed Duiker, Cephalophus silvicultor

ARKive video - Yellow-backed duiker - overview
Yellow-backed duiker - overview
BBC Natural History Unit
http://www.arkive.org




References:
[1] IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group 2008. Cephalophus nigrifrons. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN
       Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 January 2012
[2]
Source: UICN Press Release - 06 February 2009 -
       'One fourth of antelope species are threatened with extinction in the world
'.


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The images used herein, except where otherwise stated, were obtained from
IMSI's MasterClips(MasterPhotos(C) Collection,
1895 Francisco Blvd.East, San Rafael, CA 94901-5506, USA



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