Our Beautiful World

Sangihe Islands


© http://www.north-sulawesi.org/satal.html



Sangihe Islands

The Sangihe Islands are volcanic Islands, including such volcanoes as Awu and Karangetang

Sangihe Islands, Indonesian: Kepulauan Sangihe, also spelled Sangi, archipelago off the northeastern tip of Celebes (Sulawesi), Indonesia. The islands extend northward from Celebes for about 160 miles (260 km)
and have a total area of 408 square miles (1,056 square km); they are administered from Manado, the capital
of Sulawesi Utara province.
The main islands in the group are Sangihe, Siau, Tahulandang, and Biaro, and there are numerous islets.
Tahuna (Taruna), on Sangihe’s west coast, is the main town
http://www.britannica.com/

The Sangihe Islands is dominated by the 1830m Karangetang volcano on Api Siau Island..
This chain of around 40 steep and lush volcanic islands connects Indonesia with Philippines.

These islands are inhabited by many rare and exotic birds and mammals. There are several parrots among them
the Red-and-blue Lory, Eos histrio, and other birds such as the Talaud rail and bush-hen and the
Sangihe scops owl
that are very rare or nearly extinct. The Karakelang Hunting Reserve on Karakelang island
is for hunting wild buffaloes and wild pigs, but it is also good for birding.
http://www.starfish.ch/dive/Siau.html

On these islands there are a lot of strange birds. Ever heard about a Cocoo that don't leave eggs in other
bird's nests? Or a bird that dig a hole and lay eggs there, whereafter it leaves them. Or chickens
coming out of the eggs ready to fly and go on on their own? You'll find them here.....


Elegant sunbird, Aethopyga duyvenbodei
Sanghir Sunbird, Sanghir Yellow-Backed Sunbird - Paradissolfugl



http://orientalbirdimages.org

The Elegant Sunbird, Aethopyga duyvenbodei, is a large, Australasian sunbird in the genus Aethopyga.

An Indonesian endemic, the Elegant Sunbird is distributed to the island of Sangihe, north of Sulawesi.
It is found and locally common in the forests and plantations near Mount Sahendaruman in southern Sangihe.

The Elegant Sunbird is about 12 cm. Large, brightly-coloured sunbird. Male has purplish-red ear-coverts and collar, metallic green-and-blue patches on crown, upperwing-coverts and uppertail-coverts, yellowish-olive back,
yellow rump-band and underparts. Female is much duller, with yellowish-olive upperparts and yellow rump and underparts.

Population estimate: 19,000 - 43,800. Population trend: decreasing
Range estimate (breeding/resident): 560 km2

The Elegant Sunbird, Aethopyga duyvenbodei, is currently known from Sangihe, north of Sulawesi, Indonesia.
It is, however, absent from large areas of the island, and continuing loss of both primary and secondary forest
habitat suggests that populations continue to decline.

2010 IUCN Red List Category (as evaluated by BirdLife International - the official Red List Authority for birds for IUCN): Endangered

Original forest on Sangihe has been almost completely cleared. This species is now known to survive in secondary
habitats without adjacent primary forest patches, but agricultural intensification is reducing the available area of even these modified habitats. The tiny remaining area of primary forest, around which the main population is centred, receives inadequate protection and continues to suffer from agricultural encroachment at its lower fringes. Forest-cover on the volcanically active island of Siau is extremely limited and the species is either extinct there, or survives in tiny numbers.

Text from BirdLife International (2010) Species factsheet: Aethopyga duyvenbodei.
Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 7/10/2010


Temminck's Sunbird, Aethopyga temminckii


Temminck's Sunbird, Aethopyga temminckii
Courtesy: http://indonesiatravelling.com

The Temminck's Sunbird, Aethopyga temminckii, is a species of sunbird. It is found in up to 1800 m altitude in
Borneo, Sumatra, Malaysia, and south west Thailand in tropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical
or tropical moist montanes.
It is named after Dutch aristocrat and zoologist Coenraad Jacob Temminck, and has been considered conspecific
with Scarlet Sunbird, Aethopyga mystacalis.

Temminck's Sunbird is 10 cm (female) -12.5 cm (male) long, . The longer-tailed male is mostly scarlet, except
for a greyish belly, and yellow and purple bands between the back and tail. The female is drab olive, except for
rufous fringes to the wing and tail feathers.
Source: http://indonesiatravelling.com


Brown-throated Sunbird, Anthreptes malacensi



Similar spp. Male Brown-throated Sunbird, Anthreptes malacensis has brown throat and purplish wings
and tail. It lacks a yellow rump, as does the female. Voice Undocumented, but presumably has high-pitched
calls and twittering song, like close congeners.

The Brown-throated Sunbird, also known as the Plain-throated Sunbird, is a species of bird in the Nectariniidae family. It is found in a wide range of semi-open habitats in south-east Asia, ranging from Myanmar to the Lesser Sundas and west Philippines. The Grey-throated Sunbird found in the remaining part of the Philippines is often considered a subspecies of the Brown-throated Sunbird, but the two differ consistently in measurements and plumage, and there is no evidence of intergradation between them.
Description

The Brown-throated Sunbird is a relatively large, heavy sunbird with a thick bill. Measuring some 14 centimetres in length, with males averaging slightly larger than females.

Like most sunbirds, the male Brown-throated Sunbird is more colourful than the female. The male has iridescent green and purple upperparts with chestnut on the wing-coverts and scapulars; it is primarily yellow below. The female is olive-green above and yellowish below.

The Brown-throated Sunbird primarily feeds on nectar, but it will also take small fruits and berries. Juveniles are fed with insects.
Source: http://indonesiatravelling.com


Mammals:

Sulawesi Dwarf Cuscus, Strigocuscus-celebensis

Strigocuscus-celebensis, Sulawesi Dwarf Cuscus

The Sulawesi Dwarf Cuscus, Strigocuscus celebensis is a species of marsupial in the Phalangeridae family.
It is endemic to Sulawesi and nearby islands in Indonesia.


Variable flying fox - Pteropus hypomelanus


Order : CHIROPTERA, Family : Pteropodidae, Species : Pteropus hypomelanus
Photographed at Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia

http://www.ecologyasia.com/verts/bats/island_flying_fox.htm

The Small Flying Fox or Variable Flying Fox, Pteropus hypomelanus is a species of megabat in the Pteropodidae family. It is found in Australia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea,
the Philippines, the Solomon Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam

Length of forearm, overall body size, and locality generally are useful characters for differentiating members of
the genus Pteropus . Pteropus hypomelanus is the largest member of the hypomelanus species group.

Body of Pteropus hypomelanus is fully furred. Hair on pinna is long and sparse anteriorally, but upper half of
posterior surface of ear is nearly naked. Hair on forehead is short and dense and gradually becomes longer from
neck to mantle.
Wing membranes are attached along midline of the back. Fur color in Pteropus hypomelanus is highly variable. Typically, fur on head is dark brown, although in some individuals it fades to light brown or yellowish brown.



Order : CHIROPTERA, Family : Pteropodidae, Species : Pteropus hypomelanus
Photographed at Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia

http://www.ecologyasia.com/verts/bats/island_flying_fox.htm

Pteropus hypomelanus may roost individually or in colonies from 10 to several hundred individuals.
In gregarious roosting situations, colonies are usually organized into small family groups.

In the Philippines, colonies of 50–70 bats were evenly dispersed in the crown of coconut (C. nucifera) trees .
In Malaysia, roosting groups typically consist of 40–50 individuals .

When exposed to the hot sun during the day, these bats often cool themselves by flapping their wings,
licking their chest and wings, and panting. In cool weather or during heavy rain, they almost completely wrap themselves with their wings.
Individuals of Pteropus hypomelanus may disperse nightly from islands on which they roost to forage on a
nearby mainland
http://www.science.smith.edu/msi/pdf/639_Pteropus_hypomelanus.pdf


Bear cuscus, Ailurops ursinus


Bear Cuscus, Ailurops ursinus, an endemic marsupial feeding on Fig, Ficus altissima,
Tangkoko-Dua Saudara Nature Reserve, Sulawesi, Indonesia

Photographer: TUI DE ROY/MINDEN PICTURES/National Geographic Stock. Picture Id: 1168595

ARKive video - Bear cuscus - overview
Bear cuscus, Ailurops ursinus
BBC Natural History Unit
http://www.arkive.org

The bear cuscus is found on the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia and the neighbouring islands of Sangihe, Salidabu, Butung, the Peleng Islands, the Togian Islands, and possibly Muna

The bear cuscus inhabits lowland moist tropical rainforests, up to 600 metres above sea level. It prefers
undisturbed forest and rarely enters degraded habitats . On Sangihe, the bear cuscus is largely restricted to
undisturbed primary forest surrounding an extinct volcanic crater

http://www.arkive.org


ARKive video - Young bear cuscus with parent
Young bear cuscus with parent
BBC Natural History Unit
www.arkive.org

This species occurs on the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia, and the adjacent Indonesian islands of Butung, the Peleng Islands, the Togian Islands, and possibly Muna (Flannery 1995). It ranges from sea level to over 600 m asl.

Listed as Vulnerable because of an ongoing population decline estimated and projected to exceed 30% in a ten year period (5 in the past, 5 in the future) due to the high rate of deforestation and hunting of this species on Sulawesi.

It is widespread and common in suitable habitat. A density estimate of 2.0 individuals/km2 was reported for
North Sulawesi in the 1993-1994. This species, however, was at one time much more plentiful.
From 1979-1994, there had been a 95% decline in Tangkoko-DuaSudara Nature Reserve due to hunting
and this decline may be indicative of trends for North Sulawesi . This decline is only getting worse due to
hunting and the pet trade

ARKive video - Bear cuscus feeding and climbing along branches

Bear cuscus feeding and climbing along branches
NHNZ Moving Images, Audio: BBC Natural History Unit
www.arkive.org

It is typically found in undisturbed tropical lowland moist forests. This species does not readily use disturbed
habitats, thus it is not usually found in gardens or plantations . It is a largely diurnal, arboreal species that is often
found in pairs. Its diet consists of a variety of leaves, preferring young leaves, and like many other arboreal
folivores it spends much of its day resting in order to digest.
Salas, L., Dickman, C., Helgen, K. & Flannery, T. 2008. Ailurops ursinus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 13 February 2012.


Malay civet - Viverra tangalunga


Viverra tangalunga, Malay civet

The Malayan Civet, Viverra tangalunga, also known as the Oriental Civet, is a civet found on the Malay Peninsula and the islands of Sumatra, Bangka, Borneo, the Rhio Archipelago, and the Philippines.

Malay civets are nocturnal which means, they active at night from 1800 to 0700. Usually, they are terrestrial
but they climb into tree. Despite their cat-like appearance and similar behavior and traits, they are not felines.
Their fur may be gray or brown, and may be marked in various patterns. Most of Viverra tangalunga are
Carnivores but some of them are solitary, omnivorous and are primarily terrestrial .
They feed on others animals including small vertebrate and invertebrate.


Sulawesi giant squirrel, Rubrisciurus rubriventer


no pictures currently not available

The Red-bellied squirrel, Rubrisciurus rubriventer, is a species of squirrel. Until recently, it was described as a species in the genus Callosciurus, but since the 1990s it is generally placed in its own genus Rubrisciurus. It is endemic on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. With a length of 25 cm (head and body), it is rather large for a squirrel. It lives in the tree tops of the rainforests of the island.



Birds:

Grey Shrikethrush, Anisbentet Kelabu, Colluricincla harmonica

The Grey Shrikethrush or Grey Shrike-thrush, Colluricincla harmonica, formerly commonly known as
Grey Thrush, is one of the best-loved and most distinctive songbirds of Australasia. It is moderately common to common in most parts of Australia, but absent from the driest of the inland deserts. It is also found in New Guinea
and Indonesia.

Of medium size, about 24 cm long, and lacking bright colours, the Grey Shrikethrush—usually just thrush in
casual conversation—has an extraordinary gift for ringing melody,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grey_Shrikethrush

Bulwer's Pheasant, Lophura bulweri


Bulwer's Pheasant, Lophura bulweri
Courtesy: http://indonesiatravelling.com


Bulwer's Pheasant, Lophura bulweri, is also known as Bulwer's Wattled Pheasant, the Wattled Pheasant, or the White-tailed Wattled Pheasant. It is a Southeast Asian bird in the Phasianidae family; endemic to the forests of Borneo. While the species is locally common in protected areas (e.g. Kayan Mentarang National Park,
Kalimantan) it is rarely found elsewhere.

The bird inhabits Montane tropical forest, likely preferring highland rainforests and rarely visiting the lowlands.
The diet consists mainly of fruits, worms, and insects.

Male 77-80 cm, female c.55 cm. Blackish-plumaged pheasant with bushy, gleaming white tail (male). Blue facial skin and wattles, red legs and indistinct bluish spotting to tips of upperpart feathers. Female smaller and darkish rufous-brown in colour with dull bluish facial skin and red legs.

ARKive video - Bulwer's pheasant - overview
Bulwer's pheasant - overview
BBC Natural History Unit BBC Natural History Sound Library
www.arkive.org

Similar spp. Female Crested Fireback Lophura ignita has tufted crest, prominently white-scaled underparts and pale legs. Voice Territorial call shrill, piercing cry, also utters kak alarm notes and penetrating, rather metallic
kook!, kook!

It was named after Sir Henry Ernest Gascoyne Bulwer, Governor of Labuan 1871-1875, who presented the type specimen to the British Museum.

Bulwer's Pheasant is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species due to a rapidly declining population. The primary reasons for this decline are habitat loss and fragmentation due to commercial logging and forest fires. Local hunting is also thought to undermine the birds population. Further, captive breeding programs aimed at preserving the species have met with little success. Population is estimated to 1.000-10.000 specimens.
Partly from BirdLife International (2012) Species factsheet: Lophura bulweri. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/02/2012. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2012) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/02/2012.



Cerulean Paradise flycatcher, Pitta Sordida

Hooded Pitta, Paok Hijau, Pitta sordida
http://www.indonesiatraveling.com

Hooded Pittas can reach a length of 16 to 19 cm and a weight of 42 to 70 g. Their diet consists of various insects (including their larvae), which they hunt on the ground, and berries. In the breeding period, which lasts from
February to August, they build nests on the ground; both parent take care of the eggs and the fledglings.
They are highly territorial and their fluty double-noted whistle calls ("qweeek-qweeek") can be constantly
heard from their territories, sometimes throughout the nights


Philippine Scrubfowl - Megapodius cumingii


Philippine Megapode, Gosong Pilipina, Megapodius cumingii
http://www.indonesiatraveling.com
Alsos known as Tabon Scrubfowl , No: Mjaueovnhøne

The megapodes, also known as incubator birds or mound-builders, are stocky, medium-large chicken-like birds
with small heads and large feet in the family Megapodiidae. Their name literally means large foot (Greek: mega =
large, poda = foot), and is a reference to the heavy legs and feet typical of these terrestrial birds.

Megapodes do not incubate their eggs with their body heat as other birds do, but bury them. Their eggs are
unique in having a large yolk, making up 50-70% of the egg weight.They are best known for building massive
nest-mounds of decaying vegetation, which the male attends, adding or removing litter to regulate the internal
heat while the eggs hatch

Megapode chicks do not have an egg tooth: they use their powerful claws to break out of the egg, and then
tunnel their way up to the surface of the mound, lying on their backs and scratching at the sand and vegetable
matter. Similar to other precocious birds, they hatch fully feathered and active, already able to fly and live
independently from their parents.

Megapodes are found in the broader Australasian region, including islands in the western Pacific, Australia,
New Guinea, and the islands of Indonesia east of the Wallace Line, but also the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
in the Bay of Bengal.
http://www.indonesiatraveling.com


Dollarbird - Eurystomus orientalis


Eurystomus orientalis , Dollarbird , Tiong lampu Biasa
http://www.indonesiatraveling.com
Order: Coraciiformes, Family: Coraciidae, Genus: Eurystomus, Species: Eurystomus orientalis

Dollarbirds got their name from the two silvery white circular patches on each underwing, that flash as they fly. These look like shining American silver dollar coins.

Dollarbirds eat mainly insects, and appear particularly fond of hard-skinned flying insects like beetles. But they
will take any large insect or even feed on swarming insects. They also catch other small animals.


Dollarbird (Eurystomus orientalis) Samsonvale Cemetery, SE Queensland, Australia
Photo: Aviceda, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dollarbird_Samcem_Dec02.JPG

They nest in hollow trees including dead coconut palms or dig out burrows in earth banks; good nest sites are
re-used every year. 3-4 white eggs are laid; the eggs are rather pointed at one end. Both parents incubate and
raise the young. Incubation takes 17-20 days and the chicks fledge in about a month.

Migration: Some Dollarbirds that breed in China and Japan visit Singapore in April-May. The adults leave the
breeding area first, the young following later. They don't migrate in huge flocks, but travel in two's or even alone,
usually during the day.
http://www.indonesiatraveling.com


Sulawesi Kingfisher - Ceyx fallax


Ceyx fallax, Sulawesi Kingfisher, Udangmerah Sulawesi
http://www.indonesiatraveling.com
Order: Coraciiformes,
Family: Alcedinidae, Genus: Ceyx, Species: Ceyx fallax
Ceyx fallax Sulawesiisfugl Sulawesi (Sulawesi Dwarf) Kingfisher

The Sulawesi Kingfisher, Ceyx fallax is a species of bird in the Alcedinidae family. It is endemic to Indonesia.
Ceyx fallax is restricted to Sulawesi and the neighbouring Sangihe and Talaud islands (race sangirensis), Indonesia. It is generally uncommon, although possibly more numerous in parts of Sulawesi, e.g. Panua Nature Reserve.
It may be extinct on Sangihe as a result of habitat loss.

This species inhabits drier primary lowland forest (unassociated with water) up to 1,000 m, chiefly c.600 m.
It is also recorded from tall secondary and selectively logged forest.
Source: BirdLife International (2012) Species factsheet: Ceyx fallax. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/02/2012. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2012) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/02/2012.


Lilac-cheeked Kingfisher - Cittura cyanotis

Cittura cyanotis, Lilac Kingfisher, Rajaudang Pipi-ungu
Order: Coraciiformes, Family: Halcyonidae, Genus: Cittura, Species: Cittura cyanotis

http://www.indonesiatraveling.com
Cittura cyanotis Harlekinisfugl Lilac (Lilac-marked, Masked) Kingfisher

The Lilac Kingfisher or Celebes Flat-billed Kingfisher, Cittura cyanotis, is a resident breeding bird in the lowlands of the Indonesia island of Sulawesi and the neighbouring Sangihe and Talaud Islands. It is the only member of the genus Cittura.

The Lilac Kingfisher is 28 cm long. It has the typical kingfisher shape, with a short tail and long bill. The adult
male of the nominate race, Cittura cyanotis cyanotis, has a brown crown and back and rufous rump and tail.

The call of this large tree kingfisher is a rapid ku-ku-ku-ku.


Lilac-marked Kingfisher Cittura cyanotis cyanotis - Female,
seen in Tangkoko Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia, 9 July 2006

Photo: Lip Kee Yap, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lilac_cheeked_kingfisher.jpg

The Lilac Kingfisher is unlikely to be confused with any other kingfishers in its range..The Lilac Kingfisher is
found in lowland rainforest and drier hill forest up to 1000 m altitude. It perches motionless on a low branch
watching for its prey, mainly large insects, on the ground below.

This species has a restricted range and fragmented distribution, and is uncommon, with no records from south
Sulawesi. Lowland deforestation has been extensive in recent decades, and the loss of its habitat has led to
Lilac Kingfisher being classed as near-threatened. Little else is known of the behaviour of this species,
and no nests have been found.


Rainbow Bee-eater - Merops ornatus
  
Merops ornatus, Rainbow Bee-eater, Kirikkirik Australia
Left. © www.arthurgrosset.com, Right http://www.indonesiatraveling.com

The Rainbow Bee-eater, Merops ornatus, is a near passerine bird in the bee-eater family Meropidae.
It is the only species of Meropidae found in Australia.

Rainbow bee-eaters are brilliantly colored birds that grow to be 18-20 cm in length, including the elongated
tail feathers. The upper back and wings are green in color, and the lower back and under-tail covers are bright
blue.

Rainbow bee-eaters are a common species and can be found during the summer in un-forested areas in most of
southern Australia and Tasmania, however they are becoming increasingly rare in Suburban parks. They migrate
north during the winter into northern Australia, New Guinea, and some of the southern islands of Indonesia.


Rainbow Bee-eater (Merops ornatus) Dayboro, SE Queenslad, Australia
Photo: Aviceda , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rainbow_Bee-eaters_Juffs.JPG

Like all bee-eaters, rainbow bee-eaters are very social birds. When they are not breeding they roost together in
large groups in dense undergrowth or large trees.Breeding season is before and after the rainy season in the north, and from November to January in the south.

Rainbow bee-eaters are believed to mate for life. The male will bring the female insects while she digs the
burrow that will be their nest.

Rainbow bee-eaters mostly eat flying insects, but, as their name implies, they have a real taste for bees.
Rainbow bee-eaters are always watching for flying insects, and can spot a potential meal up to 45 m away.
Once it spots an insect a bee-eater will swoop down from its perch and catch it in its long, slender, black bill
and fly back to its perch. Bee-eaters will then knock their prey against their perch to subdue it.


Rainbow Bee-eater, Merops ornatus. November 2005
Photo: Brett Donald, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rainbowbeeeater.jpg

Even though rainbow bee-eaters are actually immune to the stings of bees and wasps, upon capturing a bee
they will rub the insect's stinger against their perch to remove it, closing their eyes to avoid being squirted with poison fromthe ruptured poison sac. Bee-eaters can eat several hundred bees a day, so they are obviously resented by beekeepers, but their damage is generally balanced by their role in keeping pest insects such as
locusts, hornets, and wasps under control.


Oriental Cuckoo - Cuculus saturates


© http://www.ecosystema.ru/


Oriental Cuckoo, Kangkok Ranting, Cuculus saturatus optapus
Cuculus saturatus Orientgjøk Himalayan Cuckoo
Courtesy: http://www.indonesiatraveling.com
Order: Cuculiformes, Family:Cuculidae, Genus: Cuculus, Species: Cuculus saturatus

looks like there are some confusion about the right specimen here.

Oriental Cuckoo, Cuculus saturatus optapus, was for long a species of cuckoo found all over Asia.
These birds breed in northern Eurasia and the Himalayas, migrating to southeast Asia and the Greater Sunda
Islands for the winter, where an all-year resident population also exists.

In 2005, it was determined that this "species" constitutes of three distinct lineages:
* Himalayan Cuckoo, Cuculus (saturatus) saturatus
* Oriental Cuckoo proper, Cuculus (saturatus) optatus
* Sunda Cuckoo, Cuculus (saturatus) lepidus



Asian Koel - Eudynamys scolopacea


Eudynamys scolopaceus, Koel, Tuwuk, Tuwur asia
Courtesy: http://www.indonesiatraveling.com
Eudynamys scolopaceus Grønnebbkoel Asian Koel

Order: Cuculiformes, Family: Cuculidae, Genus: Eudynamys, Species: Eudynamys scolopaceus

The Asian Koel, Eudynamys scolopaceus, is a member of the cuckoo order of birds, the Cuculiformes.
It is found in South Asia, China, and Southeast Asia.

The Asian Koel is a brood parasite that lays its eggs in the nests of crows and other hosts, where the young are
raised by the foster parents. They are unusual among the cuckoos in being largely frugivorous as adults.

The Asian Koel is a large, long-tailed, cuckoo at 45 cm. The male of the nominate race is glossy bluish-black,
with a pale green or grey bill, the iris is crimson, and it has grey legs and feet. The female of the nominate race is
brownish on the crown and has rufous streaks on the head.

The Asian Koel is a bird of light woodland and cultivation. It is a mainly resident breeder in tropical southern Asia
from India and Sri Lanka to south China and the Greater Sundas. They have great potential in colonizing new
areas. They first arrived in Singapore in the 1980s and became very common birds.


Asian Koel, Eudynamys scolopaceus, in Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Photo: J.M.Garg, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Asian_Koel_(Eudynamys_scolopacea)-_Male_close_up_in_Kolkata_I_IMG_7568.jpg

The Asian Koel has several geographic forms that have well marked plumage differences or have been
geographically isolated with little gene flow. The following is a list of named subspecies with their distributions
and synonyms as given by Payne:
Eudynamys scolopaceus scolopaceus (Linnaeus, 1758). Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka,
Laccadives and Maldives.
Eudynamys scolopaceus chinensis, Southern China and Indochina, except the Thai-Malay Peninsula.
Eudynamys scolopaceus harterti . Hainan.
Eudynamys scolopaceus malayana, Thai-Malay Peninsula, Lesser Sundas and Greater Sundas, except      Sulawesi. This may include the race dolosa described from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Eudynamys scolopaceus mindanensis (Linnaeus,1766)
     (includes Eudynamys scolopaceus paraguena from  Palawan, and      Eudynamys scolopaceus corvina      from Halmahera, the Philippines (including Palawan and the Babuyan Islands), islands between Mindanao and      Sulawesi, and North Maluku, except the Sula Islands.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asian_Koel



Lesser Coucal - Centropus bengalensis


Lesser Coucal , Bubut Alang-alang, Centropus bengalensis
Courtesy: http://www.indonesiatraveling.com
Centropus bengalensis Bengalsporegjøk Lesser Coucal
Order:Cuculiformes, Family: Cuculidae, Genus: Centropus, Species: Centropus bengalensis

Coucals feed on large insects, frogs, lizards, snakes. They hunt these among the undergrowth, using their
powerful bills to catch and kill their prey.

Coucals are rather terrestrial, preferring to walk than fly. They emerge in the open only in the early morning.
The rest of the day, they forage on foot in tall grass. When disturbed, they make a short flight with shallow wing
beats and brief glides into cover. They then scuttle away on foot. They are strong runners and have straight hind
claws and are sometimes called "lark-heeled cuckoos".


Lesser Coucal, Centropus bengalensis
Courtesy: http://www.indonesiatraveling.com

The Lesser Coucal, Centropus bengalensis, is a species of cuckoo in the Cuculidae family.
Lesser Coucals are mostly solitary, only rarely seen in pairs.
It is found in the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia, ranging across Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Tibet and Vietnam.

Although they are members of the cuckoo family, Lesser Coucals do not lay their eggs in other birds' nests.
They build their own nests. These are usually well concealed and comprise a large globe (18 x 25cm) made
of twigs or grass (blades and stems) with a large entrance hole to one side.



Lesser Coucal, Centropus bengalensis
Photo: CharlesLam, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lesser_Coucal.jpg

2-3 white eggs are laid in December-July. Hatchlings are black skinned with long bristly down.
Like other Coucals, when disturbed, the chicks squirt out copious amounts of foul-smelling liquid faeces.

The Coucals have the head and bill of a crow, but long tail feathers of a pheasant. In fact, in the past, they were known as crow-pheasants.


Sulphur-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua galerita


Sulphur-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua galerita
© www.arthurgrosset.com
Cacatua galerita Gultoppkakdu Sulphur-crested Cockatoo
Order: Psittaciformes, Family: Cacatuidae, Subfamily: Cacatuinae, Genus: acatua, Subgenus: Cacatua, Species: Cacatua galerita

The Sulphur-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua galerita, is a relatively large white cockatoo found in wooded
habitats in Australia and New Guinea. They can be locally very numerous, leading to them sometimes being
considered pests. They are well known in aviculture, although they can be demanding pets.

It has a total length of 45–55 cm (18–22 in), with the Australian subspecies larger than subspecies from
New Guinea and nearby islands. The plumage is overall white, while the underwing and -tail are tinged yellow.
The expressive crest is yellow. The bill is black, the legs are grey, and the eye-ring is whitish. Males typically
have almost black eyes, whereas the females have a more red or brown eye, but this require optimum viewing
conditions to be seen.


The parrot: Sulphur-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua galerita
The tree: Alloxylon flammeum - Queensland Waratah, Australia rainforest tree,
The tree is vulnerable in the wild, but luckily it can be found as street tree
in Brisbane city and suburbs.
Brisbane city, Queensland, Australia, September 2009
Photo: Tatiana Gerus, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cacatua_galerita_in_a_Alloxylon_flammeum_tree-8a.jpg

The differences between the subspecies are subtle. Cacatua galerita fitzroyi is similar to the nominate race but lacks the yellow on the ear tufts and slightly blueish skin around the eye. Cacatua galerita eleonora is similar
to Cacatua galerita fitzroyi but is smaller and has broader feathers in the crest, and Cacatua galerita triton
is similar to Cacatua galerita eleonora except it has a smaller bill. (This makes it so easy to identify them....)

ARKive video - Sulphur-crested cockatoo - overview
Gultoppkakadu, Cacatua galerita
BBC Natural History Unit
http://www.arkive.org

Their distinctive raucous call can be very loud; it is adapted to travel through the forest environments in which they live, including tropical and subtropical rainforests. These birds are naturally curious, as well as very intelligent.

The nest is a bed of wood chips in a hollow in a tree. Like many other parrots it competes with others of its
species and with other species on nesting sites.[2] Two to three eggs are laid and incubation lasts between
25–27 days. Both parents incubate the eggs and raise the nestlings. The nestling period is between 9 to 12 weeks,
and the young fledgelings remain with their parents for a number of months after fledging.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulphur-crested_Cockatoo


Great-billed Parrot - Tanygnathus megalorynchos


Great-billed Parrot, Betetkelapa Paruh-besar, Tanygnathus megalorynchos
Courtesy: http://www.indonesiatraveling.com
Tanygnathus megalorynchos Grovnebbpapegøye Great-billed Parrot
Order: Psittaciformes, Family: Psittacidae, Genus: Tanygnathus, Species: Tanygnathus megalorynchos

The Great-billed Parrot, Tanygnathus megalorynchos, also known as Moluccan Parrot or Island Parrot,
is a medium-large, approximately 38 cm long, green parrot with a massive red bill, cream iris, blackish shoulders,
olive green back, pale blue rump and yellowish green under parts. The female is typically smaller than the male,
but otherwise the sexes are similar.

The Great-billed Parrot is found in forest, woodland and mangrove in the south-east Asian islands of Maluku, Raja Ampat, Talaud, Sangir, Sarangani, the Lesser Sundas, and nearby small island. The diet consists mainly of fruits.

It remains widespread and locally fairly common, and consequently has been rated as Least Concern on the
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.


Blue-backed Parrot - Tanygnathus sumatranus

Blue-backed Parrot, Betetkelapa Punggung-biru, Tanygnathus sumatranus
Courtesy: http://www.indonesiatraveling.com
Order: Psittaciformes, Family: Psittacidae
Tanygnathus sumatranus Asurgumppapegøye Azure-rumped Parrot

The Blue-backed Parrot, Tanygnathus sumatranus, is also known as Müller's Parrot, or Azure-rumped Parrot. This parrot is endemic to the Philippines, and Sulawesi and nearby islands in Indonesia. It occurs in forest and
nearby habitats (including cultivated areas) at altitudes up to 800 m. Flocks are small and often active at night. Known to eat crops, including corn.

It is of medium size (32 cm), basically green with yellowish edging to the wings, a blue rump, and blue wing bends.

There are six subspecies:
Tanygnathus sumatranus sumatranus: Sulawesi and nearby islands. Yellow iris.
Tanygnathus sumatranus sangirensis: Sangir Islands and Karakelong. More blue on wing bends and wing        coverts, head darker green. Yellow iris.
Tanygnathus sumatranus burbidgii: Sulu Islands. Darker green with lighter collar. Yellow iris.
Tanygnathus sumatranus everetti: Panay, Negros, Leyte, Samar, Mindanao. Mantle and back darker, rump        and head lighter. Some blue in mantle. Red iris.
Tanygnathus sumatranus duponti: Luzon. Dark green with yellow collar. Yellowish underwing coverts. Iris red.
Tanygnathus sumatranus. freeri: Polillo Islands. More uniform color with less contrast, more yellow on nape. Iris red.


Sangihe Hanging-Parrot, Loriculus catamene



Sangihe Hanging Parrot , Serindit Sangihe, Loriculus catamene
Courtesy: http://www.indonesiatraveling.com

Order: Psittaciformes, Family: Psittacidae
Loriculus catamene Sangiheflaggermuspapegøye Sangihe Hanging-Parrot

The Sangihe Hanging Parrots, Loriculus catamene, are endemic to the small island of Sangihe, north of Sulawesi,
in Indonesia where they can be found at elevations up to ~1,000m.
They are strictly arboreal, never descending to the ground, preferring to stay high up in dense tree canopies.
They are less conspicuous than most hanging parrots as they are well camouflaged in the foliage and are rathe
r quiet. They are only conspicuous when foraging on lower bushes or when they form noisy, screeching flocks.

This small parrot averages 12 to 13.5 cm in length.
Its natural diet consists of coconut nectar, soft fruits (especially wild figs) and flowers.

Its range is very limited and the population numbers are dwindling due to habitat destruction. Sources seem to
disagree about the estimated world population of this species. Some state that only 1,000 to 2,500 of these
parrots are still in existence, while a 1998/1999 survey listed that up to 46,200 of these parrots can still be
found in their natural habitat. This information could not be substantiated.


Glossy Swiftlet - Collocalia esculenta


White-bellied Swiftlet, Walet Sapi, Collocalia esculenta,
Collocalia esculenta Glanssalangan Glossy Swiftlet

Courtesy: http://www.indonesiatraveling.com

Order: Apodiformes, Family: Apodidae, Tribe: Collocaliini, Genus: Collocalia


The Glossy Swiftlet (Collocalia esculenta) is a species of swift in the Apodidae family. It is found in Australia, Brunei, Christmas Island, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Thailand, and Vanuatu.


Sangihe Scops-Owl, Otus collari


Otus collari, Sangihe Scops Owl , Celepuk Sangihe
Otus collari Sangiheugle Sangihe Scops-Owl
Courtesy: http://www.indonesiatraveling.com
Order: Strigiformes, Family: Strigidae, Genus: Otus .Species: O. collari


The Sangihe Scops Owl (Otus collari) is an owl endemic to the island of Sangihe
Otus collari Sangiheugle Sangihe Scops-Owl

Slender-billed Cuckoo-Dove - Macropygia amboinensis
Macropygia amboinensis Rosengjøkdue Slender-billed Cuckoo-Dove
Moluccan Swiftlet - Aerodramus infuscatus
Aerodramus infuscatus Wallaceasalangan Moluccan Swiftlet
White-throated Needletail - Hirundapus caudacutus
Hirundapus caudacutus Pigghaleseiler White-throated Needletail
se AG.com



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ANIMALS

over 250

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BIRDS

over 500

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FLOWERS

over 225
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