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Cuckooshrikes, Campephagidae

White-winged Cuckooshrike, Coracina ostenta
Reunion Cuckooshrike, Coracina newtoni




Black-faced Cuckoo-shrike, Coracina novaehollandiae, Australia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Black-faced_Cuckoo-shrike_westend_apr05.jpg



Campephagidae
Order: Passeriformes
Suborder: Passeri
Family: Campephagidae


Genus Coracina (48) Cicadabirds and Cuckooshrikes.
Genus Campephaga (6) Cuckooshrikes.
Genus Campochaera.
   Golden Cuckooshrike, Campochaera sloetii
Genus Lobotos, Now Genus Campephaga
Genus Pteropodocys,
Now Genus Coracina
Genus Lalage (12) Trillers.
Genus Pericrocotus
(13) Minivets
Genus Hemipus, Flycatcher-shrikes
Bar-winged Flycatcher-shrike, Hemipus picatus
Black-winged Flycatcher-shrike, Hemipus hirundinaceus
Genus Tephrodornis, Wood-shrikes, now Prionopidae
Genus Chlamydochaera, now Turdidae

The cuckooshrikes and allies in the Campephagidae family are small to medium-sized passerine bird species found
in the subtropical and tropical Africa, Asia and Australasia. The roughly 85 species are found in eight (or nine) genera
which comprise five distinct groups, the 'true' cuckooshrikes (Campephaga, Coracina, Lobotos, Pteropodocys
and Campochaera
) the trillers (Lalage), the minivets (Pericrocotus), the flycatcher-shrikes (Hemipus).
The wood-shrikes (Tephrodornis) were often considered to be in this family but are probably closer to the helmetshrikes or bushshrikes. Another genus, Chlamydochaera, which has one species, the Black-breasted
Fruithunter was often placed in this family but has now been shown to be a thrush (Turdidae).

Cuckooshrikes are closely related neither to the cuckoos nor to the shrikes; the name probably comes from the
grey colour of many of the cuckooshrikes. Some of the species also bear a superficial resemblance to cuckoos,
and have a similar undulating flight. The grey colouration has led to one of their other names, the greybird. In some
parts of the world they have also been known as caterpillar-birds, a name derived from their diet.

Overall the cuckooshrikes are medium to small arboreal birds, generally long and slender. The smallest species is the
Small Minivet at 16 cm and 6-12 grams, while the largest is the South Melanesian Cuckooshrike at 35 cm and 180
grams. They are predominantly greyish with white and black, although the minivets are brightly coloured in red, yellow
and black, and the Blue Cuckooshrike of central Africa is all-over glossy blue. The four cuckooshrikes in the genus
Campephaga exhibit sexual dimorphism, with males that have glossy black plumage and bright red or yellow wattles
, the females having more subdued olive-green plumage. The genus Coracina is not monophyletic.

Of the 84 species of cuckooshrike, the majority are forest birds. Some species are restricted to primary forest, like
the New Caledonian Cuckooshrike, others are able to use more disturbed forest. Around eleven species use much
more open habitat, one Australian species, the Ground Cuckooshrike being found in open plains and scrubland with
few trees.

The 'true' cuckooshrikes are usually found singly, in pairs, and in small family groups, whereas the minivets,
flycatcher-shrikes and wood-shrikes more frequently form small flocks. There is a considerable amount of variation
within the family as a whole with regards to calls, some call very infrequently and some, principally the minivets, are
extremely vocal.

These are mainly insectivorous, and will take large hairy caterpillars. They have also been recorded eating small
vertebrates, and some fruit, seeds and other plant matter.

Information about the breeding of this family is incomplete, with many species having never been studied. In all the
species studied the cuckooshrikes are territorial; in species that do not migrate these territories are maintained year
round. Cuckooshrikes are monogamous, with the pair bonds apparently lasting throughout the year Several species
of cuckooshrike exhibit cooperative breeding. About four blotchy white, green or blue eggs are laid in a cup nest
in a tree. Incubation is about two weeks.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuckooshrike


Genus Coracina (48) Cicadabirds and Cuckooshrikes

English Norsk Latin
Pygmy Cuckoo-shrike Rødøyelarveeter Coracina abbotti
New Caledonian Cuckoo-shrike Brungumplarveeter Coracina analis
Moluccan Cuckoo-shrike Molukklarveeter Coracina atriceps
Blue Cuckoo-shrike Asurlarveeter Coracina azurea
Pied Cuckoo-shrike Svarthvitlarveeter Coracina bicolor
Boyer's Cuckoo-shrike Svarthakelarveeter Coracina boyeri
Stout-billed Cuckoo-shrike Grovnebblarveeter Coracina caeruleogrisea
Gray Cuckoo-shrike Grålarveeter Coracina caesia
(South) Melanesian Cuckoo-shrike Melanesialarveeter Coracina caledonica
Pale-gray Cuckoo-shrike Bleklarveeter Coracina ceramensis
Ashy Cuckoo-shrike Askelarveeter Coracina cinerea
Blackish Cuckoo-shrike Kullarveeter Coracina coerulescens
Kai Cuckoo-shrike Kailarveeter Coracina dispar
Sumba Cuckoo-shrike Sumbalarveeter Coracina dohertyi
Lesser Cuckoo-shrike Smålarveeter Coracina fimbriata
Buru Cuckoo-shrike Burularveeter Coracina fortis
Grauer's Cuckoo-shrike Kivularveeter Coracina graueri
Solomon Islands Cuckoo-shrike Salomonlarveeter Coracina holopolia
Papuan Cuckoo-shrike Fløyelslarveeter Coracina incerta
Javan Cuckoo-shrike Javalarveeter Coracina javensis
Sunda Cuckoo-shrike Sundalarveeter Coracina larvata
White-rumped Cuckoo-shrike Hvitgumplarveeter Coracina leucopygia
Yellow-eyed Cuckoo-shrike Guløyelarveeter Coracina lineata
Hooded Cuckoo-shrike Hettelarveeter Coracina longicauda
Large Cuckoo-shrike Storlarveeter Coracina macei
Ground Cuckoo-shrike Bakkelarveeter Coracina maxima
McGregor's Cuckoo-shrike Alvelarveeter Coracina mcgregori
Black-headed Cuckoo-shrike Svarthodelarveeter Coracina melanoptera
New Guinea Cuckoo-shrike Beklarveeter Coracina melas
Black-winged Cuckoo-shrike Svartvingelarveeter Coracina melaschistos
Black-bibbed Cuckoo-shrike Svartbrystlarveeter Coracina mindanensis
Black-bellied Cuckoo-shrike Svartbuklarveeter Coracina montana
Sulawesi Cuckoo-shrike Sulawesilarveeter Coracina morio
Reunion Cuckoo-shrike Reunionlarveeter Coracina newtoni
Black-faced Cuckoo-shrike Maskelarveeter (Picture above) Coracina novaehollandiae
White-winged Cuckoo-shrike Hvitvingelarveeter Coracina ostenta
White-bellied Cuckoo-shrike Hvitbuklarveeter Coracina papuensis
Halmahera Cuckoo-shrike Halmaheralarveeter Coracina parvula
White-breasted Cuckoo-shrike Hvitbrystlarveeter Coracina pectoralis
Wallacean Cuckoo-shrike Wallacealarveeter Coracina personata
Indochinese Cuckoo-shrike Nagalarveeter Coracina polioptera
Slaty Cuckoo-shrike Skiferlarveeter Coracina schistacea
Gray-headed Cuckoo-shrike Sotlarveeter Coracina schisticeps
Bar-bellied Cuckoo-shrike Båndlarveeter Coracina striata
Sula Cuckoo-shrike Sulalarveeter Coracina sula
Cerulean Cuckoo-shrike Blålarveeter Coracina temminckii
Cicadabird Sikadefugl Coracina tenuirostris
Mauritius Cuckoo-shrike Mauritiuslarveeter Coracina typica


White-winged Cuckooshrike, Coracina ostenta

White-winged Cuckooshrike, Coracina ostenta, is a species of bird in the Campephagidae family.
It is endemic to the Philippines.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montanes.
It is threatened by habitat loss

This species is listed as Vulnerable because it is undergoing a rapid and continuing population decline as a result of
extensive forest loss at low to mid-altitudes within its range.



White-winged Cuckoo-shrike, Coracina ostenta
Photo: Unknown

Identification 25 cm. Canopy-dwelling, black-and-white passerine. Male has black head and upper breast, forming
dark hood. Dark grey back and rump, black wings with white wing-patch across greater coverts and tertials.
Black tail with white tips to outer tail feathers. Dark grey breast and belly, white undertail-coverts.
Dark bill, iris and legs. Female similar to male although head grey (lacks black hood) and underparts paler.
Similar spp. Barred Cuckoo-shrike C. striata larger and lacks white in wing. Voice Loud, sharp whistles tseeuu,
sometimes running together to form jangled phrase. Hints Joins mixed feeding flocks. Tends to stay in the canopy.


Population estimate: 10,000-19,999
Population trend: decreasing
Range estimate (breeding/resident): 23,500 km2

Coracina ostenta is endemic to the Western Visayas in the Philippines, where it is known from Panay, Negros and
Guimaras. Formerly widespread on Negros, it is now restricted to seven known localities, although it is still locally
common. It appears much scarcer on Panay, where there are recent records from just three localities in the west.
It is presumed extinct on Guimaras, where it has not been recorded for over a century. Given that Panay and Negros
are largely deforested in the lowlands, it is inferred that it occupies a small, fragmented range.
Text from BirdLife International (2010) Species factsheet: Coracina ostenta.
Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 7/10/2010



Reunion Cuckooshrike, Coracina newtoni


Reunion Cuckooshrike, Coracina newtoni
Photo: © http://animaladay.blogspot.com/2011/06/reunion-cuckooshrike.html
The Reunion Cuckooshrike, Coracina newtoni, is 22 cm. Greyish arboreal bird. Male overall dark grey with paler
underparts, especially on flanks and vent. Dark face imparts masked effect. Tail tipped white. Female dark brown
above with very obvious, narrow white eyebrow-stripe and pale, finely barred underparts. Voice Shrill and clear
whistled tui tui tui. Female gives harsh shrek alarm note. Hints Quiet, inconspicuous bird, particularly when feeding,
occurring either singly or in pairs.

The bird is endemic to Réunion, and restricted to two very small areas in the north-west (Plaine d'Affouches and Plaine des Chicots). The population was estimated at 120 pairs after surveys in 1991, suggesting that numbers had
been stable since 1974.

Males are thought to now outnumber females by two to one, and in 2007 there were thought to be as few as 25
breeding pairs, but there are early indications that predator control is proving successful, with an increase in female
survival and improved breeding success.

It has been conjectured that it primarily occupied lowland forest in the past. The species now occurs between 1,000
and 1,800 m asl, and is strictly associated with closed-canopy natural forest, occurring in mixed evergreen
subtropical forest that also often includes areas of heath Philippia montana and tamarin Acacia heterophylla.

Nest predation by black rats Rattus rattus, and to a lesser extent brown rats, Rattus norvegicus, and feral cats
appears to be the primary reason for poor reproductive success; and it is possible that this explains the skewed sex
ratio. The dropping of litter in the Roche Ecrite Nature Reserve by visitors inadvertedly supports the proliferation
of the rat population.
Source:
BirdLife International (2012) Species factsheet: Coracina newtoni. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/05/2012.





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ANIMALS

over 250

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BIRDS

over 500

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FLOWERS

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