is a medium blue-green colour.
It has its name from the Anas crecca, whose name is 'Common Teal',
a member of the duck-family,
whose eyes are sorrounded by this speciel colour.
gracilis, Nomadeand, Grey Teal oc
Teal, Queensland, Australia, Sept. 2008
Photo: Glen Fergus
The Grey Teal, Anas gracilis, is a dabbling duck found in open
wetlands in New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand,
Vanuatu and Solomon Islands.
This is a mottled brown duck with white and green flashes on its
wings. The male and female Grey Teal share the same colouration,
in contrast to the related Chestnut Teal,
whose male and female are strikingly different.
The Grey Teal has almost identical colouration to the female Chestnut
Teal and the Grey can only be distinguished by its lighter coloured
neck and paler face. Juveniles are paler than adults, especially
on the head.
The Grey Teal nests near its favoured freshwater lakes and marshes,
usually on the ground, but also in tree holes or rabbit burrows.
Teal, Anas gracilis. This beautiful photo of a nesting pair
of Grey Teal,
was taken at the Humbug Scrub Sanctury, near Adelaide, Australia
Photo: Ron's Australian Wildlife Photo's
This is a vocal duck, especially at night. The male gives a soft
preep, and the female has a loud quack.
The Grey Teal is a gregarious species. In Australia it is nomadic,
rapidly colonising suitable habitat following rain.
In 1957, large numbers fled Australia, moving to New Zealand to
It was formerly considered a subspecies of the Sunda
Teal, as Anas gibberifrons gracilis.
Widespread throughout its large range, the Grey Teal is evaluated
as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
castanea, Kastanjeand, Chestnut Teal oc
Chestnut Teal. Taken in Victoria, Australia in June 2008
Permission is granted
to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of
the GNU Free Documentation License, Version
The Chestnut Teal is darker and a slightly bigger bird than the Grey
The male has a distinctive green coloured head and mottled brown
The female has a brown head and mottled brown body. The female is
almost identical in appearance to the Grey
The female Chestnut Teal has a loud penetrating "laughing"
quack repeated rapidly nine times or more.
Chestnut Teal. Taken in Victoria, Australia in March 2008
granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the
terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version
The Chestnut Teal is commonly distributed in south-eastern and south-western
Australia, while vagrants may occur elsewhere.
Tasmania and southern Victoria are the species stronghold,
while vagrants can be found as far north as New Guinea
and Lord Howe Island.
The Chestnut Teal prefers coastal estuaries and wetlands, and is
indifferent to salinity. This bird is an omnivore.
Teal, Anas castanea, female with 5 ducklings, 2 albino, Tasmania,
Photo: D. Gordon E. Robertson
click on the following link to see videos of Chestnut Teal
DucklingChestnut Teals form monogamous pairs that stay together
outside the breeding season, defend the nest site
and look after the young when hatched. Nests are usually located
over water, in a down-lined tree hollow about 610 m high.
Sometimes nests are placed on the ground, among clumps of grass
The young hatch and are ready to swim and walk within a day.
aucklandica, Bronseand, Auckland IslandsTeal oc
Endemic to New Zealand, the brown teal has evolved over the centuries
into three subspecies, one on the New Zealand
mainland and offshore islands, The Brown Teal,
Anas chlorotis, and the other two on sub-Antarctic islands in
Campbell and Auckland groups, Campbell Islands
Teal, Anas nesiotis, and Auckland Islands Teal,
The latter two species are flightless and, with the introduction of
cats to these islands, were virtually eliminated from all
but a few predator free islets.
We have wsome difficulties with pictures here, as all three species
also are called Brown Teals
Teal on Tiritiri Matangi Island, Auckland, New Zealand. June 2003
When you think of ducks you normally think of lakes, marshes and rivers
to consider a duck on the sea is almost like
a duck out of water. However, the combined effect of habitat loss
and predation has meant that now the only place you will
ever really catch sight of our little brown teal is off
Not only has the drainage of our wetlands and the reclamation of
estuaries left the brown teal with little choice but to find another
place to live, the fact that at least every second New Zealander
wants to live and/or holiday on the seashore does not make the
mainland coast a great second option either, which leaves only the
The Pateke has a small width head with a uniform dark brown
face and a fine white ring around the eye.
Pateke feed on aquatic
or marine invertebrates which they scoop off the water surface or
mud in shallow water estuaries,
Most of its body is dark brown with pale edges to the feathers although
the breast is chestnut.
The bill is a bluish black colour while the legs and feet are slate
freshwater wetlands, in peaty pools and sheltered coastal bays. They
may also be seen probing seaweed on the beach or even
rummaging through the bush, especially at night, as they are mainly
Brown teal tend to flock at traditional roosting sites when not
feeding although, during the breeding season,
these flocks are mainly juveniles and non-paired adults.
The existence of communal roosting sites has allowed fairly accurate
census of the remaining populations and there are
estimated to be only 2500 birds remaining in the wild.
As well as loss of habitat, hunting, predation and disease have
also played a part in the rapid decline in teal.
The birds reluctance to fly and its flocking nature made brown
teal an easy target for hunters and, even though they
have had legal protection since 1921, the killing goes on, as one
duck looks much like another.
Islands teal, Anas aucklandica - Overview
BBC Natural History Unit
The Auckland Islands Teal is smaller and raker than the Brown Teal
of the main islands of New Zealand, a species that it was
once considered conspecific with (of or the same species).
The plumage is all over brown with a hint of green on the neck
and a conspicuous white eyering. The female is slightly darker
than the male. The wings are very small and the species has, like
the related Campbell Island Teal, lost
the power of flight.
The Auckland Islands Teal is mostly crepuscular to nocturnal, preferring
to hide from predators
(New Zealand Falcons
and skuas) during the day.
It is carnivrous for the most part, feeding on marine invertabrates,
insects, amphipods and other small Invertebrates.
The Auckland Islands Teal are territorial and seldom form flocks.
nesiotis, Campbelland, Campbell Islands Teal oc
Island Teal, endangered species of New Zealand
The Campbell Island Teal, Anas nesiotis, is a small, flightless,
nocturnal species of dabbling duck of the genus Anas,
endemic to the Campbell Island group of New Zealand. It is sometimes
considered conspecific with the Brown Teal.
The plumage is similar to that of the Auckland
Teal, dark sepia with the head and back tinged with green
and a chestnut breast on the male, with the female dark brown all
Its natural habitat is tussock grassland dominated by Poa tussock
grass, ferns and megaherbs.
The species also uses the burrows and pathways of petrel species
that nest on the islands.
They are apparently territorial in the wild, and probably feed on
amphipods and insects.
The Campbell Island Teal is critically endangered, with a wild
population of possibly less than 50 birds.
Once found on Campbell Island, it was driven to extinction there
by the introduction of Norway Rats (which ate their
eggs and chicks), and was for a while presumed extinct.
In 1975 it was rediscovered on Dent Island, a small (23 hectare)
islet near Campbell that had remained rat-free.
The population was so small that a single event could have driven
it to complete extinction; to prevent this from happening,
11 individuals were taken into captivity by the Department of Conservation
for captive breeding at the Mt Bruce Wildlife Centre
in 1984 while the rest followed in 1990. They were also put on the
list of critically endangered species in 1979.
Island Teal, Anas
at Kiwi Birdlife Park in Queenstown, New Zealand.
Photo: Peter Halasz
Captive breeding was initially very difficult to achieve, as no
studies on the behaviour of the species had been carried out in
the wild and "staff [at Mount Bruce] thus had to experiment
with a range of techniques to encourage breeding.
Success came in 1994 when Daisy, the only wild origin female to
ever lay eggs in captivity, finally accepted a mate.
Subsequently, breeding has occurred every year wild origin
males contributed genes by pairing with captive raised females.
A small population of 25 captive-bred individuals was released
on Codfish Island in 1999 and 2000, already intensively
managed and pest-free as an important habitat for the critically
Kakapo is not only the rarest parrot on the planet but also the
This bird is kind of fat looking and never, ever takes flight.
This parrot is also known as the longest living bird in the world.
In the final phase of the ecological restoration of Campbell Island
(cattle, sheep and cats had already been removed),
the world's largest rat eradication campaign was undertaken by helicopter
drops of more than 120 tonnes of poisoned bait
over the entirety of the island's 11,331 hectare area in 2001; this
operation successfully removed what was estimated to be the
world's densest population of Norway rats (200,000) from Campbell
Island and it was officially declared rat free in 2003.
Fifty Campbell Island Teal, a mix of captive-bred and wild-acclimatised
animals (from Codfish), were reintroduced to
Campbell Island in mid 2004, after an absence of more than a century.
Subsequent monitoring in 2005 has shown that the
majority of these birds are now thriving in their ancestral homeland.
species qualifies as Critically Endangered as it has had a tiny
breeding population for many years.
The one wild population on Dent Island off Campbell Island is assumed
to have been stable.
Recent reintroduction of birds to Campbell Island appears to have
successfully established a second population,
and overall numbers are now above the threshold for listing as Critically
Endangered, and increasing.
However, this classification will be retained for five years until
the species is confirmed to be self-sustaining in
larger numbers in the wild, at which time it will warrant downlisting.
Goudswaard (1991) estimated 60-100 birds in 1990 while Gummer and
Williams (1999) estimated
fewer than 25 breeding pairs. Since that time, the population has
increased to over 200 individuals after the reintroduction
of birds onto Campbell Island in 2004 onwards, following a successful
rat eradication programme.
However, as the majority of the population is still the first generation
of released birds, and the population has not definitely
sustained itself above 50 individuals for 5 years yet, the lower
population estimate is retained for Red Listing purposes.
The population has increased to over 200 individuals thanks to
a captive-breeding programme and the successful release
of birds on Whenua Hou and more recently mainland Campbell Island.
It lives under thick, chest-high tussock (there are no pools or
running water on Dent).
It has been sighted over most of the island, but is probably more
common below 100 m, and in damp areas.
It has not been observed feeding on the island, but in captivity
it feeds on amphipods, weevils, earthworms, seaweed and
other insects. Birds released onto Codfish Island have been observed
feeding on invertebrates in piles of rotting seaweed
along the shore and foraging offshore at night. In captivity, females
sometimes lay two clutches of between one and four eggs.
Reintroduced males on Campbell Island hold territories. Birds have
dispersed into open upland areas, Dracophyllum forest,
upstream habitats and coastal beaches.
Text above from : BirdLife International
(2010) Species factsheet: Anas nesiotis.
Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/11/2010
is a genus of plants belonging to the family Ericaceae, formerly
There are some one hundred or so species in the genus, mostly shrubs
but also cushion plants and trees, found in New Zealand,
Australia and New Caledonia. The name, Dracophyllum or Dragon-leaf
refers to their strange, almost prehistoric appearance.
They are sometimes called Grass-trees.
chlorotis, Kobberand, Brown Teal nz
Nieuw-Zeelandse Bruine taling
French: Sarcelle brune de Nouvelle-Zélande
Brown Teal, Anas chlorotis, at Karori Sanctuary, Aug. 2007
Photo: Sabine's Sunbird
The NZ Brown Teal, Anas chlorotis, is a unique endemic species that
was once widespread throughout New Zealand in very
large numbers and was historically found in every type of New Zealand
wetland. Before Europeans arrived the brown teal
population is believed to have been in the millions, with a population
spread from Northland to Southland
and to the Chatham Islands and to Stewart Island.
Brown teal have many unique features that are not found in any other
species of waterfowl, and it is these unique features
that place brown teal in a class of their own.
In the early 1800s brown teal were possibly the most abundant
duck species in New Zealand and whilst the brown teal
population declined steadily from the late 1800s it accelerated
from the 1950s to a level, where over the past 15 years,
numbers declined from a population of c2,500 to c1,200. And to a
level where it is now one of the worlds most endangered
species of waterfowl; perhaps the worlds fourth most endangered
duck and in imminent danger of premature extinction -
with the expected time for total extinction in the wild being 2015.
Besides being endemic/unique to the New Zealand landscape, it is
mainly the behavioural features of brown teal,
which set it apart from all other species of dabbling duck, and
in a class of its own.
Brown teal have the unique and extraordinary tendency to hide in
grass and overhanging vegetation for most of the day and
whilst this behaviour has been generally described as crepuscular
it is now felt more appropriate to describe it as nocturnal.
Yet another unique feature is that in a captive situation there
is no possibility of retaining more than one pair of brown teal
an enclosure, whether it is an aviary or a fenced open pond. Only
on ponds of at least c0.2 hectare will a pair of brown teal
tolerate other species of waterfowl.
click on the following link to see videos of Brown Teal
ssp Anas chlorotis
In small areas not only will a bonded pair of brown teal firstly
kill all other brown they will then kill all other species
of duck that dare to invade their territory.
They have also been known to severely chastise both the NZ Paradise
Shelduck, Tadorna variegata,
and Black Swan, Cygnus
From: The New Zealand Brown
By Neil Hayes, firstname.lastname@example.org
waigiuensis, Tigerand, Salvadori's Teal oc
Salvadori's Teal Kachna
The Salvadori's Teal or Salvadori's Duck, Salvadorina
waigiuensis, is a species of bird native to New Guinea.
It is placed in the monotypic genus Salvadorina.
Initially, it was believed to belong to the "perching ducks",
a paraphyletic assemblage of species which generally fell between
dabbling ducks and shelducks. With the breaking-up of the "perching
ducks", it was rather provisionally placed in the
dabbling duck genus Anas. It was then reinstated in its own genus
and moved to the shelduck subfamily Tadorninae,
which also contains the Torrent Duck
and Blue Duck which convergently have
evolved adaptations to mountain stream habitat.
(Hope to receive info in time next time it changes its family....)
It has a dark brown head and neck, and its body is barred, spotted
dark brown and off white, with orange legs and a yellow bill.
It is a secretive inhabitant of fast-flowing streams and alpine
lakes between 500 and 3.700m in the mountains.
It is one of only four waterfowl species that are adapted to life
on fast-flowing rivers, the other being the Torrent
the Blue Duck and Harlequin
It is an omnivore. It locates its nest near water, and lays 2 to
4 eggs in the dry season.
The Salvadori's Teal is the sole endemic duck species of the island
of New Guinea.
The IUCN has listed the bird as vulnerable, and the total population
may be slowly declining.
The name commemorates the Italian naturalist Tommaso Salvadori.
This species is widespread, from the low foothills where tumbling
rivers spill out of the mountains, to the highest alpine tarns; nonetheless,
it occurs in small numbers wherever it occurs, and its specialized
habitat requirement ensure that its globa
l population will remain small. It may be declining through hunting
and habitat degradation and therefore qualifies as Vulnerable, although
further information may show that it is less threatened than currently
It is a small duck, about 43 cm, of montane rivers and lakes.
Dark brown head. Body barred and spotted dark brown and
Salvadorina waigiuensis is endemic to
the mountains of New Guinea. It is rare and local at lower altitudes,
off-white. Yellow bill. Orange legs. None of the many species of
duck recorded in New Guinea have a yellow bill
and uniform chocolate head or a barred body.
usually found in the lowlands, combine rather plain heads with pale
spots or stripes on the flanks
and Australian White-eyed Duck, Aythya australis, has uniformly
plain brown plumage.
Voice Various calls only given in courtship
there are records at 70 m in Lakekamu Basin, but it occurs across
the island in suitable montane habitat.
There are recent records from few locations, a consequence of the
inaccessibility of most of its range and the species's
unobtrusive, shy and perhaps nocturnal habits.
The population has been variously estimated to be 2,500-20,000 birds
and stable or slowly declining.
teal, Anas waigiuensis
Endemic to the mountains
of New Guinea; found in the bog pond at 5,410 feet
Photo: Tim Laman
Although recorded from 70-4,100 m, this duck is uncommon below
600 m and most common at the highest altitudes.
It breeds beside fast-flowing rivers and streams, and alpine lakes,
and has also been recorded on slow-flowing rivers.
It is not sociable, and one rarely encounters anything beside single
adults or pairs.
Breeding territories are variable in size owing to local conditions,
for instance pairs have been found to occupy 1,600 m
of stream on the Baiyer River but only 160 m on the Ok Menga River.
The species uses small tributary streams as well
as main river channels, a factor which may contribute to its perceived
It lays clutches of two to four eggs alongside rivers or lakes in
the dry season.
It is omnivorous, feeding by dabbling and diving.
Click on following link to see videos from IBC
Some local extirpations and declines have been attributed to hunting,
predation by dogs, and habitat degradation, largely
The Blue Duck, Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos,
is a member of the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae
through increasing human pressure and siltation, especially from
hydroelectric projects, mining and logging,
but these have only impacted small areas.
The stocking of alpine rivers with exotic trout species has been
suggested as a potential risk to food sources.
BirdLife International (2010) Species
factsheet: Salvadorina waigiuensis.
Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/11/2010
malacorhynchos, Kaskadeand, Blue Duck
Blue Ducks, Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos,
preening at the Auckland Zoo
. It is the only member of the genus Hymenolaimus, placed in
the shelduck subfamily Tadorninae after previously being
considered part of the paraphyletic "perching duck" assemblage.
The Maori name is whio, which is an onomatopoetic rendition
of the males' call.
The blue duck is born with a green beak for just 8 hours after birth;
where it then develops to its final colour.
This 54 cm long species is an endemic resident breeder in New Zealand,
nesting in hollow logs, small caves and
other sheltered spots. It is a rare duck, holding territories on
fast flowing mountain rivers.
It is a powerful swimmer even in strong currents, but is reluctant
It is difficult to find, but not particularly wary when located.
Blue Duck, Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos,
at Staglands, Akatarawa Valley, NZ
Photo: Karora, July 2007
The blue duck is a dark slate-grey with a chestnut-flecked breast
and a paler bill and eye. The pinkish-white bill has fleshy flaps
of skin hanging from the sides of its tip. The male's call is an
aspirated whistle, and the female's is a rattling growl.
duck, Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos, Overview
NHNZ Moving Images, Dunedin, NZ
This is a very localised species now threatened by predation from
introduced mammals especially stoats, competition
for its invertebrate food with introduced trout, and damming of
mountain rivers for hydroelectric schemes.
The New Zealand Department of Conservation is presently working
on recovery programmes in habitats such as
the Oparara River area of the West Coast, New Zealand and the Milford
Track in Fiordland.
The blue duck also features on the reverse side of the New Zealand
armata, Strømand, Torrent Duck
A pair of Torrent Ducks on the Urubamba River
in Urumamba River, Peru
Torrent Duck, Merganetta armata, is a member of the duck,
goose and swan family Anatidae.
It is the only member of the genus Merganetta. Nowadays,
it is placed in the shelduck subfamily Tadorninae after the
"perching duck" assemblage where it was formerly assigned
to was dissolved because it turned out to be paraphyletic.
Its closest relative may be the Blue Duck
of New Zealand.
(Strange - two birds of same kind, on in South America and one
in New Zealand???)
The subspecies taxonomy is quite confusing. Males of the southern
nominate subspecies, the Chilean Torrent Duck,
have a grey back and blackish underparts with a chestnut belly.
Males of the slightly smaller northern subspecies,
the Colombian Torrent Duck, M. a. colombiana, are paler underneath,
with steaked grey-brown underparts.
Males of the third subspecies, the Peruvian Torrent Duck, M. a.
leucogenis, are intermediate but very variable in plumage;
some have entirely black underparts (turneri morph). Only males
of the Chilean Torrent Duck have a black 'teardrop' mark
beneath the eye. The Peruvian Torrent Duck is sometimes split into
not less than 4 subspecies (leucogenis, turneri, garleppi
and berlepschi), but these are more likely simply color variations,
as they are not limited to distinct areas.
(So, how comes the Blue Duck into this line?)
male Torrent Duck standing on rocky banks of the Urumbamba River,
This 4346 cm long species is a resident breeder in the Andes
of South America, nesting in small waterside caves and other
sheltered spots. Like the Blue Duck,
it holds territories on fast flowing mountain rivers, usually above
It is a powerful swimmer and diver even in white water, but is reluctant
to fly more than short distances.
It is not particularly wary when located.
Male Torrent Ducks have a striking black and white head and neck
pattern and a red bill.
In flight they show dark wings with a green speculum.
Females of all subspecies are somewhat smaller than the drakes;
they have orange underparts and throat,
with the head and upperparts grey and a yellower bill. Juveniles
are pale grey above and whitish below.
The male's call is a shrill whistle, and the female's is throatier
River at Torres del Paine. Chile, Dec.2005
This is a declining species now due to competition for its invertebrate
food from introduced trout, pollution, forest destruction,
and damming of mountain rivers for hydroelectric schemes. The Chilean
population seems to be relatively stable.