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Birds of Paradise, Paradisaeidae



Order: Passeriformes
Suborder: Passeri
Family: Paradisaeidae

Bird-of-paradise, the family of birds, Paradisaeidae of the order Passeriformes
The genera of this family that have "Bird-of-paradise" in the common name:

The birds-of-paradise are members of the family Paradisaeidae of the order Passeriformes. The majority of species in this family are found on the island of New Guinea and its satellites, with a few species occurring in the Moluccas and eastern Australia. The family has forty species in 14 genera. The members of this family are perhaps best known for the plumage of the males of most species, in particular highly elongated and elaborate feathers extending from the beak, wings or head. For the most part they are confined to dense rainforest habitat.

The diet of all species is dominated by fruit and to a lesser extent arthropods.
The birds-of-paradise have a variety of breeding systems, ranging from monogamy to lek-based polygamy.

The family is of cultural importance to the inhabitants of New Guinea. The trade in skins and feathers of the
birds-of-paradise has been going on for two thousand years; and, the birds have been of considerable interest to Western collectors, ornithologists and writers as well. A number of species are threatened by hunting and habitat loss.

Birds of paradise are generally crow-like in general body-form, and, indeed, are the brother group to the corvids
(crows and jays). Birds-of-paradise range in size from the King Bird-of-paradise at 50 g and 15 cm to the
Curl-crested Manucode at 44 cm and 430 g . The male Black Sicklebill, with its long tail, is the longest species at
110 cm . In most of the males are larger and longer than the female, the differences ranging from slight to extreme.

The wings are rounded and in some species structurally modified on the males in order to make sound. There is
considerable variation in the family with regard to bill shape. Bills may be long and decurved, as in the sicklebills
and riflebirds, or small and slim like the Astrapias. As with body size on average bill size varies with sex, although
species where the females have larger bills than the male are more common, particularly in the insect eating species. For reasons of camouflage plumage of the females typically blends well with their habitat, unlike the bright attractive colors found on the males.

Plumage variation between the sexes is closely related to breeding system. The manucodes and Paradise-crow,
which are socially monogamous, are sexually monomorphic. So are the two species of Paradigalla, which are
polygamous. All these species have generally black plumage with varying amounts of green and blue iridescence.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bird-of-paradise

Family: Paradisaeidae
Genus Astrapia
Arfak Astrapia, Astrapia nigra
Splendid Astrapia, Astrapia splendidissima
Ribbon-tailed Astrapia, Astrapia mayeri
Princess Stephanie's Astrapia, Astrapia stephaniae
Huon Astrapia, Astrapia rothschildi

Genus Cicinnurus
Magnificent Bird-of-paradise, Cicinnurus magnificus
Wilson's Bird-of-paradise, Cicinnurus respublica
King Bird-of-paradise, Cicinnurus regius

Genus Drepanornis
Black-billed Sicklebill, Drepanornis albertisi
Pale-billed Sicklebill, Drepanornis bruijnii

Genus Epimachus
Black Sicklebill, Epimachus fastuosus
Brown Sicklebill, Epimachus meyeri

Genus Lophorina
Superb Bird-of-paradise, Lophorina superba

Genus Lycocorax
Paradise-crow, Lycocorax pyrrhopterus

Genus Manucodia
Glossy-mantled Manucode, Manucodia atra
Jobi Manucode, Manucodia jobiensis
Crinkle-collared Manucode, Manucodia chalybata
Curl-crested Manucode, Manucodia comrii
Trumpet Manucode, Manucodia keraudrenii

Genus Paradigalla
Long-tailed Paradigalla, Paradigalla carunculata
Short-tailed Paradigalla, Paradigalla brevicauda

Genus Paradisaea
Lesser Bird-of-paradise, Paradisaea minor
Greater Bird-of-paradise, Paradisaea apoda
Raggiana Bird-of-paradise, Paradisaea raggiana
Goldie's Bird-of-paradise, Paradisaea decora
Red Bird-of-paradise, Paradisaea rubra
Emperor Bird-of-paradise, Paradisaea guilielmi
Blue Bird-of-paradise, Paradisaea rudolphi

Genus Parotia
Western Parotia, Parotia sefilata
Queen Carola's Parotia, Parotia carolae
Bronze Parotia, Parotia berlepschi
Lawes's Parotia, Parotia lawesii
Eastern Parotia, Parotia helenae
Wahnes's Parotia, Parotia wahnesi

Genus Pteridophora
King of Saxony Bird-of-paradise, Pteridophora alberti

Genus Ptiloris
Magnificent Riflebird, Ptiloris magnificus
Growling Riflebird, Ptiloris intercedens
Paradise Riflebird, Ptiloris paradiseus
Victoria's Riflebird, Ptiloris victoriae

Genus Seleucidis
Twelve-wired Bird-of-paradise, Seleucidis melanoleuca

Genus Semioptera
Standardwing, Semioptera wallacii


Hybrids

Hybrid birds of paradise may occur when individuals of different species, that look similar and have overlapping ranges, confuse each other for their own species and crossbreed.

When Erwin Stresemann realised that hybridisation among birds-of-paradise might be an explanation as to why so many of the described species were so rare, he examinined many controversial specimens and, during the 1920s and 1930s, published several papers on his hypothesis. Many of the species described in the late 19th and early 20th centuries are now generally considered to be hybrids, though some are still subject to dispute; their status is not likely to be settled definitely without genetic examination of museum specimens.

Some named hybrids and presumed hybrids are:[11]

Astrapian Sicklebill, also known as the Green-breasted Riflebird, was described as a species (Epimachus astrapioides Rothschild, 1897), but is a hybrid between the Arfak Astrapia and Black Sicklebill.
Barnes' Astrapia, also known as Barnes’ Long-tail, was described as a species (Astrarchia barnesi Iredale, 1948), but is a hybrid between Ribbon-tailed Astrapia and Stephanie's Astrapia.
Bensbach's Bird of Paradise, also known as Bensbach's Riflebird, was described as a species (Janthothorax bensbachi Büttikofer, 1894), but is presumed to be a hybrid between the Magnificent Riflebird and Lesser Bird of Paradise.
Blood's Bird of Paradise, also known as Captain Blood’s Bird of Paradise, was described as a species (Paradisea bloodi Iredale, 1948), but is a hybrid between the Raggiana Bird of Paradise and Blue Bird of Paradise.
Duivenbode's Bird of Paradise was described as a species (Paradisea duivenbodei Ménégaux, 1913), but is a hybrid between the Emperor Bird of Paradise and Lesser Bird of Paradise.
Duivenbode's Riflebird was described as a species (Paryphephorus (Craspediphora) duivenbodei Meyer, 1890), but is a hybrid between the Superb Bird of Paradise and Magnificent Riflebird.
Duivenbode's Six-wired Bird of Paradise, was described as a species (Parotia duivenbodei Rothschild, 1900), but is presumed to be a hybrid between the Western Parotia and Superb Bird of Paradise.
Elliot's Bird of Paradise, was described as a species (Epimachus ellioti Ward, 1873), but is a presumed hybrid between the Arfak Astrapia and Black Sicklebill.
False-lobed Astrapia, also known as the False-lobed Long-tail, was described as a species (Pseudastrapia lobata Rothschild, 1907), but is a hybrid between the Long-tailed Paradigalla and Black Sicklebill.
Gilliard's Bird of Paradise is a hybrid between the Raggiana Bird of Paradise and Lesser Bird of Paradise.
King of Holland's Bird of Paradise, also known as King William III’s Bird of Paradise, was described as a species (Diphyllodes gulielmi III Meyer, 1875) but is a hybrid between the Magnificent Bird of Paradise and King Bird of Paradise.
Lupton's Bird of Paradise was described as a subspecies (Paradisea apoda luptoni Lowe, 1923), but is a hybrid between the Raggiana Bird of Paradise and Greater Bird of Paradise.
Lyre-tailed King Bird of Paradise, also known as the Lonely Little King or Crimson Bird of Paradise, was described as a species (Cicinnurus lyogyrus Currie, 1900), but is a hybrid between the Magnificent Bird of Paradise and King Bird of Paradise.
Mantou's Riflebird, also known as Bruijn’s Riflebird, was described as a species (Craspedophora mantoui Oustalet, 1891), but is presumed to be a hybrid between the Magnificent Riflebird and Twelve-wired Bird of Paradise.
Maria's Bird of Paradise, also known as Frau Reichenow’s Bird of Paradise, was described as a species (Paradisea maria Reichenow, 1894) but is thought to be a hybrid between the Emperor Bird of Paradise and Raggiana Bird of Paradise.
Mysterious Bird of Bobairo is presumed to be a hybrid between the Black Sicklebill and Superb Bird of Paradise.
Rothschild's Bird of Paradise was described as a species (Paradisea mixta Rothschild, 1921), but is a hybrid between the Raggiana Bird of Paradise and Lesser Bird of Paradise.
Rothschild's Lobe-billed Bird of Paradise, also known as the Noble Lobe-bill, was described as a species (Loborhamphus nobilis Rothschild, 1901), but is presumed to be a hybrid between the Long-tailed Paradigalla and Superb Bird of Paradise.
Ruys' Bird of Paradise was described as a species (Neoparadisea ruysi van Oort, 1906), but is presumed to be a hybrid between the Magnificent Bird of Paradise and Lesser Bird of Paradise.
Schodde's Bird of Paradise is a hybrid between the Blue Bird of Paradise and Lawes's Parotia.
Sharpe's Lobe-billed Parotia, also known as Sharpe’s Lobe-billed Riflebird, was described as a species (Loborhamphus ptilorhis Sharpe, 1908), but is presumed to be a hybrid between the Western Parotia and Long-tailed Paradigalla.
Stresemann's Bird of Paradise was described as a subspecies (Lophorina superba pseudoparotia Stresemann, 1934), but is a hybrid between the Superb Bird of Paradise and Carola's Parotia.
Wilhelmina's Bird of Paradise, also known as Wilhelmina's Riflebird, was described as a species (Lamprothorax wilhelminae Meyer, 1894), but is presumed to be a hybrid between the Superb Bird of Paradise and Magnificent Bird of Paradise.
Wonderful Bird of Paradise was described as a species (Paradisea mirabilis Reichenow, 1901), but is a hybrid between the Twelve-wired Bird of Paradise and Lesser Bird of Paradise.


Macgregor's Giant Honeyeater, a black crow-like bird also known as Macgregor's Bird of Paradise
Satinbirds, a family of passerines originally thought to be part of the Paradisaeidae family
Melampitta, an enigmatic genus of birds placed by some authors in Paradisaeidae





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ANIMALS

over 250

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BIRDS

over 500

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FLOWERS

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