Our Beautiful World

Parrots, Neognathae



Blue-and-yellow Macaw in flight
Photo: Luc Viatour / www.Lucnix.be



Parrots
Infraclass: Neognathae,
Order: Psittaciformes


Parrots, also known as psittacines, are birds of the roughly 372 species in 86 genera that make up the order Psittaciformes, found in most
tropical and subtropical regions. The order is subdivided into three families: the Psittacidae ('true' parrots), the Cacatuidae (cockatoos) and
the Strigopidae (New Zealand parrots). Parrots have a generally pantropical distribution with several species inhabiting temperate regions
in the Southern Hemisphere as well. The greatest diversity of parrots is found in South America and Australasia.

Characteristic features of parrots include a strong, curved bill, an upright stance, strong legs, and clawed zygodactyl feet. Many parrots are vividly
coloured, and some are multi-coloured. The plumage of cockatoos ranges from mostly white to mostly black, with a mobile crest of feathers
on the tops of their heads. Most parrots exhibit little or no sexual dimorphism. They form the most variably sized bird order in terms of length.

The most important components of most parrots' diets are seeds, nuts, fruit, buds and other plant material. A few species sometimes eat
animals and carrion, while the lories and lorikeets are specialised for feeding on floral nectar and soft fruits. Almost all parrots nest in tree
hollows (or nest boxes in captivity), and lay white eggs from which hatch altricial (helpless) young.

Parrots, along with ravens, crows, jays and magpies, are among the most intelligent birds, and the ability of some species to imitate human
voices enhances their popularity as pets. Trapping wild parrots for the pet trade, as well as hunting, habitat loss and competition from
invasive species, has diminished wild populations, with parrots being subjected to more exploitation than any other group of birds.
Measures taken to conservethe habitats of some high-profile charismatic species have also protected many of the less charismatic species
living in the same ecosystems.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parrot

The following classification is based on the most recent proposal, which in turn is based on all
the relevant recent findings.

Superfamily Strigopoidae: The New Zealand parrots.
Family Nestoridae: 2 genera with 2 living (Kea and Kaka) of the New Zealand region.
Family Strigopidae: The flightless, critically endangered Kakapo of New Zealand.

Superfamily Cacatuoidae:
Cockatoos
Family Cacatuidae
Subfamily Nymphicinae: 1 genus with one species, the Cockatiel.
Subfamily Calyptorhynchinae: The black cockatoos
Subfamily Cacatuinae
Tribe Microglossini: One genus with one species, the black Palm Cockatoo.
Tribe Cacatuini: Four genera of white, pink and grey species.
Genus: Cacatua and Genus Licmetis:
Subgenus Cacatua - true white cockatoos
Yellow-crested (or Lesser Sulphur-crested) Cockatoo, Cacatua (Cacatua) sulphurea
Sulphur-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua (Cacatua) galerita
Blue-eyed Cockatoo, Cacatua (Cacatua) ophthalmica
White (or Umbrella) Cockatoo, Cacatua (Cacatua) alba
Salmon-crested (or Moluccan) Cockatoo, Cacatua (Cacatua) moluccensis

Subgenus Licmetis
- corellas
Long-billed Corella, Cacatua (Licmetis) tenuirostris
Western Corella, Cacatua (Licmetis) pastinator
Little Corella, Cacatua (Licmetis) sanguinea
Tanimbar Corella (or Goffin's Cockatoo), Cacatua (Licmetis) goffiniana
Solomons Cockatoo (or Ducorps's Cockatoo), Cacatua (Licmetis) ducorpsii
Red-vented (or Philippine) Cockatoo, Cacatua (Licmetis) haematuropygia


Superfamily Psittacoidae:
true parrots.
Family Psittacidae
Subfamily Psittacinae: Two African genera, Grey Parrot and Poicephalus
Subfamily Arinae
Tribe Arini: 15 genera
Genus Anodorhynchus
Hyacinth Macaw, Hyasintara, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus
Lear's Macaw, Indigoara, Anodorhynchus leari
Glaucous Macaw, Asurara, Anodorhynchus glaucus
Genus Ara:
Blue-and-yellow Macaw, Ara ararauna (Linnaeus, 1758)
Blue-throated Macaw, Ara glaucogularis Dabbene, 1921
Military Macaw, Ara militaris (Linnaeus, 1766)
   Ara militaris bolivianus Reichenow, 1908
   Ara militaris mexicanus Ridgway, 1915
   Ara militaris militaris (Linnaeus, 1766)

Great Green Macaw or Buffon's Macaw, Ara ambiguus
    Ara ambiguus ambiguus (Bechstein, 1811)
    Ara ambiguus guayaquilensis Chapman, 1925

Scarlet Macaw, Ara macao (Linnaeus, 1758)
    Ara macao cyanopterus Wiedenfeld, 1995
    Ara macao macao (Linnaeus, 1758)

Red-and-green Macaw or Green-winged Macaw, Ara chloropterus Gray, 1859
Red-fronted Macaw, Ara rubrogenys Lafresnaye, 1847
Chestnut-fronted Macaw or Severe Macaw, Ara severus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Genus Hapalopsittica:
Rusty-faced Parrot (Hapalopsittaca amazonina)
Red-faced Parrot (Hapalopsittaca pyrrhops)
Fuertes's Parrot (Hapalopsittaca fuertesi)
Black-winged Parrot (Hapalopsittaca melanotis)
Genus Touit:
Lilac-tailed Parrotlet, Touit batavicus
Scarlet-shouldered Parrotlet, Touit huetii
Red-fronted Parrotlet, Touit costaricensis - sometimes included in T. dilectissimus
Blue-fronted Parrotlet or Red-winged Parrotlet, Touit dilectissimus
Sapphire-rumped Parrotlet, Touit purpuratus
Brown-backed Parrotlet, Touit melanonotus
Golden-tailed Parrotlet, Touit surdus
Spot-winged Parrotlet, Touit stictopterus
Tribe Androglossini: 7 genera
Incertae sedis: 10 genera

Family Psittrichasiidae
Subfamily Psittrichasinae: One species, Pesquet's Parrot
Subfamily Coracopsinae: One genera with several species.

Family Psittaculidae
Subfamily Platycercinae (Psittacinae)
Tribe Pezoporini: ground parrots and allies
Tribe Platycercini: broad-tailed parrots
Genus: Pezoporus
Night Parrot,  Pezoporus occidentalis
Subfamily Psittacellinae: 1 genus (Psittacella) with several species.
Subfamily Loriinae
Tribe Loriini: lories and lorikeets
Tribe Melopsittacini: 1 genus with one species, the Budgerigar
Tribe Cyclopsittini: fig parrots

Subfamily Agapornithinae: 3 genera
Subfamily Psittaculinae (Psittacinae)
Tribe Polytelini: 3 genera
Tribe Psittaculini: Asian psittacines
Genus Loriculus:
Moluccan Hanging Parrot, Loriculus amabilis
Orange-fronted Hanging Parrot, Loriculus aurantiifrons
Sri Lanka Hanging Parrot, Loriculus beryllinus
Sangihe Hanging Parrot, Loriculus catamene
Pygmy Hanging Parrot, Loriculus exilis (also called Green Hanging Parrot)
Wallace's Hanging Parrot, Loriculus flosculus
Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot, Loriculus galgulus
Sula Hanging Parrot, Loriculus sclateri
Great Hanging Parrot, Loriculus stigmatus (also called Celebes Hanging Parrot)
Bismarck Hanging Parrot, Loriculus tener
Philippine Hanging Parrot, Loriculus philippensis (or Colasisi)
    Cebu Hanging Parrot, Loriculus philippensis chrysonotus
    Camiguin Hanging Parrot, Loriculus (camiguinensis) philippensis

    Black-billed Hanging Parrot, Loriculus (philippensis) bonapartei
Yellow-throated Hanging Parrot, Loriculus pusillus
Vernal Hanging Parrot, Loriculus vernalis
Genus Tanygnathus:
Great-billed Parrot, Tanygnathus megalorynchos
Blue-naped Parrot, Tanygnathus lucionensis
Blue-backed Parrot, Tanygnathus sumatranus
Black-lored Parrot, Tanygnathus gramineus
Tribe Micropsittini: 6 genera, Pygmy parrots
Genus: Micropsitta
Meek's Pygmy Parrot, Micropsitta meeki




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ANIMALS

over 250

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BIRDS

over 500

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FLOWERS

over 225
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