List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2bde; B1ab(v)c(iv)+2ab(v)c(iv);
C2a(ii)b ver 3.1
Long-term monitoring indicates that this
species is undergoing severe fluctuations,
primarily as a result of marine perturbations that may be
becoming more extreme.
These perturbations have caused an overall very rapid population
the last three generations (34 years). In addition, it has
a small population, and is restricted
to a very small range, with nearly all birds breeding at just
These factors qualify it as Endangered.
History: 2008 Endangered
1988 Near Threatened
mendiculus. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
<www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 September 2010..
penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus) at Elizabeth Bay
on the island of Isabela, Galapagos.
The Galapagos Penguin is the smallest of the warm weather
This penguin stands approximately 16-18 inches (40-45 cm) tall and
weighs around 5 pounds (3,5 kg).
The Galapagos Penguin lives and breeds on the Galapagos Islands
and on Isabella Island which are located north of the Equator.
These penguins will only mate when food is plentiful. Galapagos
Penguins almost always lay two eggs,
however only one chick will survive. The parent penguins share the
responsibility of caring for the eggs. The chicks will hatch after
around 38-40 days. Upon hatching, the chicks are cared for by both
parents. The chick is guarded, round the clock for 30 days
after it hatches. When the chicks reach 60-65 days old they leave
their nests for good and go to sea.
Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus). Three on dark rock by the sea on
The breeding period differs from other penguins, as the Galapagos
penguin seem to be breeding any time of the year, but is related
to temperatures in the sea, which ought to be below 24 degrees Celcius.
The Galapagos Penguins survive mainly on mullet and sardines. They
have normal human working hours, as they leave their
close-to-the-coastland colonies about 6 o'clock in the morning,
and come back from 'job' around 17.00 in the afternoon.
Then they stay in the colony overnight.
Penguin juvenile (Spheniscus mendiculus), Galapagos Islands, Ecuador.
Photo: Clark Anderson/Aquaimages.
penguin - overview and Galapagos penguins
hunting shoal of fish
Green Umbrella Ltd.+NHNZ Moving Images and
ABC Library Sales
These penguins are considered to be endangered,
because when the 1970 El Nino storm hit over 70% of these penguins
died due to food shortage.
Text above mostly from http://home.sjfc.edu/cals/units/mcgowan/fairy%20penguin.htm
The population size was estimated at about 1500 individuals in 2004
(Jiminez-Uzcategui and Vargas 2008.
CDF Peng. & Cormorant Survey).