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Sparrows, Emberiza

Corn Bunting, No: Kornspurv, Emberiza calandra
Ortolan Bunting, No: Hortulan, Emberiza hortulana  
Reed Bunting, No: Sivspurv, Emberiza schoeniculus  
Rustic Bunting, No: Vierspurv, Emberiza rustica  
Yellow Hammer, No: Gulspurv, Emberiza citrinella  

Yellow-breasted Bunting, No: Sibirspurv, Emberiza aureola

Corn Bunting, Emberiza calandra
Miliaria calandra, DE: Grauammer. En: Corn Bunting, Es: Triguero, F: Bruant proyer
I: Strillozzo, NL: Grauwe Gors,
No: Kornspurv, SE: Kornsparv



© http://www.ecosystema.ru/

The Corn Bunting, Miliaria calandra, is a passerine bird in the bunting family Emberizidae, a group now
separated by most modern authors from the finches, Fringillidae. It is the sole member of the genus Miliaria, although a few authorities place it in the large genus Emberiza.


Corn Bunting, Emberiza calandra, singing male. Salles-la-Souce, Aveyron, France
Photo: © Matthieu Gauvain (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Falcoperegrinus)


This is an unusual bunting because the sexes appear similar in plumage, although the males are approximately
20% larger than females. This large bulky bunting is 16–19 cm long, has male and female plumages similar,
and lacks the showy male colours, especially on the head, common in the genus Emberiza. Both sexes look
something like larks, with streaked grey-brown above, and whitish underparts.

The song of the male is a repetitive metallic sound, usually likened to jangling keys, which is given from a low
bush, fence post or telephone wires.

It breeds across southern and central Europe, north Africa and Asia across to Kazahkstan. It is mainly resident,
but some birds from colder regions of central Europe and Asia migrate southwards in winter.


Corn Bunting, Emberiza calandra or Miliaria calandra in Spain.
Photo: Raúl Baena Casado, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Emberiza_calandra.jpg

The Corn Bunting is a bird of open country with trees, such as farmland and weedy wasteland. It has declined
greatly in northwest Europe due to intensive agricultural practices depriving it of its food supply of weed seeds
and insects, the latter especially when feeding young.It has recently become extinct in Ireland, where it was
previously common.

Its natural food consists of insects when feeding young, and otherwise seeds.

Males defend territories in the breeding season and can be polygynous, with up to three females per breeding
male. The population sex ratio is generally 1:1, which means some males remain unmated during a season.
Males play only a small role in parental care; they are not involved in nest building or incubation, and only
feed the chicks when they are over half grown.

The nest is made of grass, lined with hair or fine grass, and is usually built on the ground.
Average clutch size is 4, but commonly varies from 3 to 5, occasionally 6.



Ortolan Bunting, Emberiza hortulana
  

En. Ortolan Bunting, Da. Hortulan, Du. Ortolaan, Fi. Peltosirkku, Fr. Bruant ortolan,
Ge. Ortolan, It. Ortolano, No. Hortulan, Sp. Escribano hortelano, Sw. Ortolansparv

PT: Sombria, TR: Kirazkusu, HU: Kerti sármány, CZ: strnad zahradní, EE: Poldtsiitsitaja, SK: strnádka záhradná,


© http://www.ecosystema.ru/


© - josef hlasek

The Ortolan, or Ortolan Bunting, Emberiza hortulana, is a bird in the bunting family Emberizidae, a passerine
family now separated by most modern authors from the finches, Fringillidae.
The bird's common name is French, from the Latin hortulanus, the gardener bird, (from hortus, a garden).

A native of most European countries and western Asia.In the autumn the Ortolan migrates to tropical Africa,
returning at the end of April or beginning of May. Its distribution throughout its breeding-range seems to be very local, and for this no obvious reason can be assigned. It was said in France to prefer wine-growing districts;
but it certainly does not feed upon grapes, and is found equally in countries where vineyards are unknown.
It reaches as far north as Scandinavia and beyond the Arctic Circle, frequenting corn-fields and their neighbourhoods.



© - josef hlasek

It is an uncommon vagrant in spring and particularly autumn to the British Isles.

The Ortolan is 16 cm in length and weighs 20 to 25 grams. In appearance and habits it much resembles its
congener the Yellowhammer, but lacks the bright colouring of that species; the Ortolan's head, for instance, is greenish-grey, instead of a bright yellow. The somewhat monotonous song of the cock resembles that of the Yellowhammer.

Ortolan nests are placed on or near the ground; the eggs seldom show the hair-like markings so characteristic
of most buntings' eggs.

Seeds are the natural diet, but beetles and other insects are eaten when feeding young.


© - lubomir hlasek

The species is in decline in at least ten European countries, although the total population is estimated in 400,000-
600,000 pairs.

In France it disappeared from 17 départements between 1960 and 1980, and numbers have fallen in another
seven départements. The 1992 estimation for the French population is 15,000 pairs.

The reasons proposed for this strong regression are habitat degradation, reduction of nesting places, and
changes in the agricultural landscape. Hunting (in particular in Landes) is responsible for taking about
50,000 birds per year (ten times the Ortolan population of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands).


© Lasse Olsson

It is a protected species in Europe and its sale is illegal in France , but Gascons still catch it by the end of
summer to fatten it. This practice is politically sensitive and one of the reasons for the regional success of parties
like that of Hunters and Fishers.

In September 2007, the French Government announced that it intended finally to enforce laws to protect the species that have been on the statute books for eight years.
text: http://en.wikipedia.org

Reed Bunting, Sivspurv, Emberiza schoeniculus  

En. Reed Bunting, Da. Rørspurv, Du. Rietgors, Fi. Pajusirkku, Fr. Bruant des roseaux,
Ge. Rohrammer, It. Migliarino di palude, No. Sivspurv, Sp. Escribano palustre, Sw. Sävsparv


© http://www.ecosystema.ru/


© www.ecosystema.ru/

The Reed Bunting, Emberiza schoeniclus, is a passerine bird in the bunting family Emberizidae, a group now
separated by most modern authors from the finches, Fringillidae.

The Reed Bunting is widespread throughout Europe and east through Asia to Japan and China.
It is found in reed beds and shrubbery near marshes and lakes being reliant on the type of vegetation that
grows in these wetter habitats.

Most birds migrate south in winter, but those in the milder south and west of the range are resident.

  

  
The nest is in a bush or reed tussock. 4-7 eggs are laid,
which show the hair-like markings characteristic of those of buntings.

© www.ecosystema.ru/


© www.ecosystema.ru/


© Lasse Olsson

The Reed Bunting is a medium sized bird, 13.5-15.5 cm long, with a small but sturdy seed-eater's bill.
The male has a black head and throat, white neck collar and underparts, and a heavily streaked brown back.
The female is much duller, with a streaked brown head, and is more streaked below..


Its natural food consists of insects when feeding young, and otherwise seeds.
© Lasse Olsson

Rustic Bunting, Vierspurv, Emberiza rustica  

In: Rustic Bunting Ca: Repicatalons rústic Da: Pileværling De: Waldammer Es: Escribano rústico Fi: pohjansirkku
Fr: Bruant rustique It: Zigolo boschereccio Nl: Bosgors No: Vierspurv Pt: Escrevedeira-rústica Sv: Videsparv



© http://www.ecosystema.ru/


Rustic Bunting in Japan
Copyright 2000 Hiroshi Nakayama

The Rustic Bunting, Emberiza rustica, is a passerine bird in the bunting family Emberizidae,
a group now separated by most modern authors from the finches, Fringillidae.


Rustic Bunting in Japan
Copyright 2000 Hiroshi Nakayama

It breeds across northern Europe and Asia.
It is migratory, wintering in south east Asia, Japan, and eastern China.
It is a rare wanderer to western Europe.

During migration, visits Aleutians and other islands in the Bering Sea; casual along the Pacific coast
to California.
Preferred habitats include coniferous forests, riparian thickets, wet taiga, scrub, and brushy areas.

http://whatbird.wbu.com/obj/660/_/Rustic_Bunting.aspx


Rustic Bunting, Shetland Islands
http://www.nature-shetland.co.uk

It breeds in wet coniferous woodland. 4-6 eggs are laid in a nest in a bush or on the ground.
Its natural food consists of insects when feeding young, and otherwise seeds.


Rustic Bunting, Shetland Islands
http://www.nature-shetland.co.uk

This bird is similar in size to a Reed Bunting.
It has white underparts with reddish flank, pink legs and a pink lower mandible.
The summer male has a black head with a white throat and supercilium and a reddish breast band.


© Lasse Olsson

The female has a heavily streaked brown back and brown face with a whitish supercilium.
She resembles a female Reed Bunting, but has the reddish flank streaks, a chestnut nape and a pink, not grey,
lower mandible.
Text from:
http://en.wikipedia.org



Yellow hammer, Emberiza citrinella  

En. Yellowhammer, Da. Gulspurv, Du. Geelgors, Fi. Keltasirkku, Fr. Bruant jaune,
Ge. Goldammer, It. Zigolo giallo, No. Gulspurv, Sp. Escribano cerillo, Sw. Gulsparv



© http://www.ecosystema.ru/


Yellowhammer, Emberiza citrinella
Photo © Jørgen Scheel

The Yellowhammer is found throughout most of Europe and extends eastwards into Siberia.
It is a bird of farmland and the countryside and has suffered declining numbers in recent years.


© www.ecosystema.ru/

This may be due to a combination of factors such as early autumn ploughing and less use of bruised barley in
animal feed. In autumn and winter, Yellowhammers form large flocks.


© Arthur Grosset

It feeds mainly on seeds, especially grass seeds, but, during the breeding season feeds on invertebrates as can
be seen in the photo above. The nest is built of dry grass and other vegetable matter and is usually close to the
ground and well hidden.

The Yellowhammer has one of the most easily remembered songs: "a little bit of bread and NO cheese"


© www.vulkaner.no
Yellowhammer, Emberiza citrinella, - just arrived, early April. (Telemark, Norway)


There are some confusion on how the name is to be spelled. There are two common versions according to Google Search:
 
Yellowhammer
   Yellow Hammer
text    
430.000
  923.000
images
 13.000
  287.000

According to www.birdguides.com, it shoud be Yellowhammer in one word.
BirdLife International, http://www.birdlife.org , doesn't really know, as they have
157 search results for Yellow hammer, and only 12 for Yellowhammer.

             

text this page from Arthur Grosset



Yellow-breasted Bunting, No: Sibirspurv, Emberiza aureola
De: Weidenammer, En: Yellow-breasted Bunting, Es: Escribano aureolado, Fr.: Bruant auréole
It: Zigolo dal collare, Du: Wilgengors, Russian: Dubrovnik, Se: Gyllensparv



Yellow-breasted Bunting, Emberiza aureola
© 
http://www.ecosystema.ru/

The Yellow-breasted Bunting, Emberiza aureola, is an Eurasian passerine bird in the bunting family Emberizidae.

This bird is similar in size to a Reed Bunting, but longer-billed. The breeding male has bright yellow underparts
with black flank streaks, brown upperparts, black face and throat bar, and a pink lower mandible. The female has
a heavily streaked grey-brown back, and less intensely yellow underparts. She has a whitish face with dark crown,
eye and cheek stripes. The juvenile is similar, but the background colour of the underparts and face is buff.

The call is a distinctive zick, and the song is a clear tru-tru, tri-tri.

It breeds in northeastern Europe and across northern Asia. It is migratory, wintering in southeast Asia, India,
and southern China. It is a rare but regular wanderer to western Europe.

The Yellow-breasted Bunting breeds in open scrubby areas, often near water, and it is very common in Siberia.
It lays 4-6 eggs in a nest on the ground. Its food consists of insects when feeding young, and otherwise seeds.

It was formerly classified as a Near Threatened species by the IUCN. But new research has shown it to be rarer than it was believed. Consequently, it is uplisted to Vulnerable status in 2008.

 


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ANIMALS

over 250

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BIRDS

over 500

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FLOWERS

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