a rearranged translation of Vladimir
Dinets original pages to norwegian,
Klikk på flagg for norsk versjon
|South from Chukotka is the Kamchatka Peninsula, mostly known
for its active volcanoes. Its tundras, birch forests, rocky
and the isolated area of conifers in the central valley are
a wildlife paradise. Here the world's largest brown bears and
live. In recent years, gold mining became the main treat to
peninsular ecosystems, as river pollution threatens Kamchatka's
salmon populations - critical food source for the wildlife.
peony, Paeonia obovata, Ussuriland.
|Peony or paeony is a name for plants in
the genus Paeonia, the only genus in the flowering plant
They are native to Asia, southern Europe and western North America.
Boundaries between species are not clear and
estimates of the number of species range from 25 to 40.
Most are herbaceous perennial plants 0.5 - 1.5 metres tall,
but some resemble trees up to 1.5 3 metres tall.
They have compound, deeply lobed leaves, and large, often fragrant
flowers, ranging from red to white or yellow,
in late spring and early summer.
of Ichinsky Volcano
from the Central Valley.
|The Central Valley of
Kamchatka is an island of boreal forest, made up by endemic
varieties of Ayan spruce, Picea ezonensis, and Dahurian larch,
Many species of forest plants and animals are represented by
there. Unfortunately, these unique forests have been almost
so now all you can see outside nature reserves is young secondary
Larch, Larix, Larches are conifers in the genus
Larix, in the family Pinaceae. Growing from 20
to 45 m tall, they are native to much of the cooler temperate
northern hemisphere, on lowlands in the north and high on mountains
further south. Larch are among the dominant plants in the immense
boreal forests of Russia and Canada.
Northern Kamchatka is almost never visited by tourists. Native
small, so the vast tundras and mountains are more or less untouched
In summer, you can travel here for weeks, feeding on mushrooms,
salmon, and never seeing people. Parapolski Dol depression in
Kamchatka is an important stopover site for migrating birds.
Boletus edulis, commonly known as penny bun, porcino
or cep, is a basidiomycete
fungus, and the type species of the genus Boletus. Widely distributed
in the Northern
Hemisphere across Europe, Asia, and North America, it does not
occur naturally in
the Southern Hemisphere. The western North American species
commonly known as the California king bolete (Boletus edulis
var. grandedulis) is a large, darker-coloured variant that
was first formally identified in 2007.
boletus, Boletus edulis,
is an importantfood source for
native people and wildlife.
Kazarka Lagoon, Kamchatka
Kingberry, Rubus regius,
Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka
Uzon Caldera, Geyser
and other volcanic areas of the Russian Far
may contain even more unique and diverse microflora than Yellowstone,
of them have never been studied using modern methods of microorganism
detection. Hot lakes and lush vegetation around them attract
endemic insects to bears and wintering whooper
, Cygnus cygnus.
|Geyser Valley is by far the most famous place on Kamchatka
Peninsula. It is small compared to Yellowstone, but has higher
concentration of geysers and hot springs with more variety of
weird-colored mineral deposits. Unfortunately, most of its wonders
are not close enough to the helipad and cannot be seen on a
regular one-day tour. Further upstream, there is seldom visited
Valley of Death. Due to high concentration of carbon dioxide
on its floor, this valley is sometimes full of bear and wolverine
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a naturally
occurring chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently
bonded to a single carbon atom. It is a gas at standard temperature
and pressure and exists in Earth's atmosphere in this state,
as a trace gas at a concentration of 0.039% by volume.
Carbon dioxide is mainly produced as an unrecovered side product
of four technologies: combustion of fossil fuels, production
of hydrogen by steam reforming, ammonia synthesis, and fermentation.
It can be obtained by or from air distillation, however, this
method is inefficient.
The combustion of all carbon-containing fuels, such as methane
(natural gas), petroleum distillates (gasoline, diesel, kerosene,
propane), but also of coal and wood, will yield carbon dioxide
and, in most cases, water.
Upstream from Geyser Valley is a grim place called Valley
of Death. Carbon dioxide seeps from the soil there, forming
a dense layer on the ground. This toxic layer can be up to
60 cm thick in predawn hours. Every spring, reserve rangers
try to get to this place and remove dead animals (mostly bears
and wolverines), so that their corpses do not attract other
scavengers to the deadly trap.
nightjar, Caprimulgus europaeus
Klyuchevskaya Group of Volcanoes is one
of the most impressive volcanic landscapes in the world. Constant
volcanic activity created eleven beautiful stratovolcanoes,
surrounded by lava fields and dust deserts. In 1988 I found
breeding common nightjars, Caprimulgus europaeus
these lava deserts, a few thousand miles from their previously
known breeding range.
|The European Nightjar, Caprimulgus europaeus,
or just Nightjar, is the only representative of the nightjar
family of birds in most of Europe and temperate Asia.
It is a late migrant, seldom appearing before the end of April
or beginning of May. It occurs throughout northern
and central Europe, and winters in Africa, as far south as the
In southern Europe, and the warmer parts of Africa and Asia,
it is replaced by other members of the nightjar
family. In Great Britain and Ireland it occurs in many suitable
localities, but in the Shetlands and other northern
islands it is only known as an occasional migrant. It is a priority
species in the UK Biodiversity Action Plan.
The Irish population has declined significantly in recent years.
Open heathy wastes, Lowland heath, bracken-covered slopes and
open woods are the haunts of the
nightjar, Caprimulgus europaeus
No nest is made - they occupy unvegetated gaps:
* lowland heath - unvegetated gaps in deep heather in dry heath.
This offers shelter and camouflage, and concealment from potential
predators. Scattered trees are used to sing from, and to roost
* In conifer forest clearings, clearfells and restocks, especially
those on former heathland, nightjars use vegetation structures
that are very like that on heathland, as well as gaps in lying
brash, for concealment.
* In coppice woods, nightjars nest in large recently cut coups
(clearings), which remain suitable until the canopy closes,
in about four to five years.
The two elongated and elliptical eggs, creamy white mottled
with brown, purple and liver-colour are placed upon the bare
ground amongst bracken or stones; the brooding bird, sitting
closely, is their best protection. They are seldom laid before
the end of May. The male occasionally broods. The female will
"squatter" away to attract attention if disturbed,
rolling and fluttering in a perfect frenzy.
Sopka, the tallest of Kamchatka's volcanoes, is rapidly
growing, and currently rises to 5800 m (17,000') almost from
the sea level. It is also one of the most beautiful peaks
in the area, although Kronotsky Volcano has even more perfect
Koryaksky Volcano at sunset.
Kronotsky Lake and Volcano
|Altogether, there are about
volcanoes in Kamchatka, and 50-60 of them are still
active or dormant. Their slopes are inhabited by ptarmigans,
sheep and marmots, Marmota camtschatica.
Southern Kamchatka is mostly uninhabited. It is a land of world's
heaviest snow cover (25-30 m/80-100' on average), deep canyons,
and the world's largest salmon run at Kurilskoe Lake, which
attracts hundreds of brown
Volchy (Wolf) Fjord,
Kurilskoe Lake and Kambalny
Boarding a ship
to Kamchatka, Bering I.
Sunset and furseals at
Commander Islands, Russia
East from Kamchatka is the Russian part of
the Aleutian Islands - the Commander Islands, always wrapped
in sea fog. They were so difficult to find in the sea that
the Aleuts had never discovered them until Bering's
found them by chance. Even now, getting
there can be a problem because of the weather.
There is only one village on the islands, inhabited by Russians
and Aleuts - descendants of Russian-American Company employees,
who were brought there in the 18th century to hunt fur
and sea otters
Øst for Kamchatka ligger den russiske delen av Aleute-øyene.
of the Aleutian Islands - the Commander Islands, alltid innhyllet
De var så vanskelig å finne ute i havet, at Aleutene
aldri hadde blitt oppdaget,
om ikke Bering-ekspedisjonen
fant dem ved en tilfeldighet.
Selv nå kan det være et problem på grunn
av værfoholdene. Det er bare en landsby på øyene,
bebodd av russere og Aleuter, etterkommere av det Russisk-Amerikanske
kompaniets ansatte, som ble satt ut der i det 18. århundre
for å jakte på pelsseler
, og sjøotere
lutris - Enhydra lutris
The Pacific Rim is probably the best place to watch sunsets.
This one was really a good luck, because there are only 20-30
sunny days per year at Commander Islands. These islands are
so well hidden in sea fog, that even the Aleuts had not found
them until Bering's expedition discovered them occasionally
in the 18th century.
species - Steller's
sea cow, Hydrodamalis gigas
, and flightless
cormorant, Phalacrocorax stelleri
are long extinct,
but the islands still have some of world's largest fur
rookeries, seabird colonies, and kelp forests.
Three species of rare Aethia
auklets breed here.
(Zoologic) is the ecological state of being
unique to a defined
geographic location, such as an island, nation or other defined
zone, or habitat
type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic
to it if they are
also found elsewhere. For example, all species of lemur are
endemic to the
island of Madagascar; none are native elsewhere. The extreme
endemism is cosmopolitan distribution.
one of the species of
American origin on
here nests only at
fur seal rookeries.
Medny Island, Russia
The Commander Islands are a good place to see some rare seabirds
Each of the two larger islands has its own subspecies of Arctic
fox, and in upland areas there are isolated populations
of some tundra species, such as snowy
owl, Bubo scandiacus.
colonial seabirds of Commander Islands, left to right: tufted
puffin, Fratercula cirrhata, horned puffin,
Fratercula corniculata, common murre, Uria aalge,
pigeon guillemot, Cepphus columba, and red-faced cormorant,
The most spectacular, diverse and understudied part of RFE
are the Kuril Islands - a volcanic chain between Kamchatka
and Japan. Northern islands are covered with alder and pine
shrub; moving south, you pass through tundra, coastal meadows,
birch parklands, dense conifers and subtropical rainforests.
World's largest and most diverse seabird colonies can be seen
in the central part of the island chain.
parklands, Iturup I.
off Matua I.,Middle Kuril Is.
Kuril Islands are currently almost uninhabited. The southern
part is claimed by Japan, and there are plans for full-scale
colonization and commercial development. Marine and terrestrial
ecosystems, especially unique marine invertebrates and mammals,
are under serious treat.
Opprinnelig var farvannene utenfor bedre
enn dem utenfor California, men århundreder med slakt
har ført til utryddelse av noen arter, og kraftig tilbakegang
for andre. Nå er det bare de fjeneste øygruppene
som har stor bestand av marine patterdyr. Nordlige Kurillene,
tatt av Russland i 1945, og er en av de beste stedene - de
fleste arter, untatt for dem som overvinterer i japanske farvann
har fullstendig restaurert seg.
The Kuril Islands are one of the most beautiful parts of our
planet, their natural wonders could be a great tourist attraction.
The best way to settle the claim would be to establish a Russian-Japanese
Nature reserve on the islands. There are a few existing reserves
in the area, but they can't efficiently protect it from mining
of The World Cape, Shikotan I.
formations at Kunashir I.
(Hokkaido I., Japan, is visible on the horizon)
But if they were openly or secretly sold to Japan by the corrupt
Russian government, they'd be soon covered by golf courses,
paved highways, and canning factories. The first projects
had already emerged and had been discussed by local authorities
even before most of the population left the islands following
a tsunami in 1994.
Lava formations at Cape Stolbchaty
View of Shiretoko Peninsula, Japan,
from Cape Stolbchaty
Under the Japanese ownership of the islands in 1904-1945,
native Ainu people
were killed or deported. Most seal rookeries, sea otter and
whale populations were depleted, and forests loggeed. It took
local ecosystems half a century to recover. Some species,
such as the endemic race of sika deer,
kurilensis, became extinct; others, such as sea
, have only survived in the northern part of
the island chain.
(Viewpoints regarding the dispute between Russia and Japan,
the pages of Vladimir Dimets, and stands for his view alone.)
Fritillaria is a genus of about 100 species
of bulbous plants in the family Liliaceae, native to
temperate regions of the
Northern Hemisphere. The name is derived from the Latin term
for a dice-box (fritillus), and probably refers to the checkered
pattern, frequently of chocolate-brown and greenish yellow,
that is common to many species' flowers. Collectively, the
is known in English as fritillaries; some North American species
are called missionbells.
Magnolia is a large genus of about 210 flowering
plant species in the subfamily Magnolioideae of
the family Magnoliaceae.
It is named after French botanist Pierre Magnol.
Magnolia is an ancient genus. The flowers have
the possibility to encourage pollination by beetles. To avoid
damage from pollinating beetles, the carpels of Magnolia flowers
are extremely tough.
The natural range of Magnolia species is a disjunct distribution,
with a main centre in east and southeast Asia and a secondary
centre in eastern North America, Central America, the West
Indies, and some species in South America.
Golden Waterfall owes its color to an
undiscribed algae species. Kunashir.
Fumaroles at Mendeleev
|Shikotan Island and the
southern part of Kunashir have particularly high biodiversity.
Many species of plants are common on the islands, but rare or
endangered elsewhere. Hot springs and lakes shelter a world
of heat-adapted organisms which nobody has ever studied.
Shikotan, in Russian, , is one of the bigger islands of the
Kuril Islands, which are controlled by Russia. It is one of
the four southernmost islands which Japan maintains a claim
It is one of the islands the Soviet Union agreed to transfer
Japan in the event of a peace treaty between the two countries.
The name of "Shikotan" derives from the Ainu language
means "land with big communities."
Among the rare birds of Kunashir and Shikotan are Red-crowned
, Grus japonensis (japonicus)
, Bubo blakistoni
, two sea
, which nests on the rocky summit
of Mendeleev Volcano. Unfortunately, these two islands will
probably be the first to be re-colonized and intensely developed
by the Japanese.
Marine ecosystems will be probably hit even worse than terrestrial
Beaches around the four remaining villages on the southern Kurils
are lined with
fishing and whaling boats confiscated from Japanese poachers,
who daily cross
the border looking for fish, sea urchin, crab, dolphins, whales
The day the border will be opened, the massacre will begin
full-scale. Japanese opinion on whaling is well known, there
is little doubt that these activities will not be stopped
by the government soon enough. Estimates suggest that it will
take 2-3 years to do an irreversible damage to marine and
forest ecosystems, and that in 5-10 years almost all rare
and endangered species will be wiped out.
dwarf bamboo (Susa)
in the undergrowth, Kunashir..
Amur is the largest river of RFE. Its valley is mostly developed,
but some fine forests and wetlands still exist. The river
itself is home to over 200 fish species, some of them very
Huso dauricus, Amur River,
The Kaluga (Huso dauricus) is a large predatory sturgeon found
in the Amur River basin. Also known as the river beluga, they
are claimed to be the largest freshwater fish in the world,
with a maximum size of at least 1,000 kg and 5.6 m. Like the
slightly larger Beluga, it spends part of its life in saltwater.
The Kaluga is one of the biggest of the sturgeon family.
Kaluga caviar comes from the Kaluga "River Beluga"
Larch taiga, Zeya River, Russia.
Fir taiga, Amut Lake, Russia.
Rare and endemic birds of the area include Siberian grouse
Baer's porchard, Aethya baeri
, oriental stork, Ciconia
, swan goose, Anser cygnoides
, Mergus squamatus
, Swinhoe's rail,
Japanese waxwing, Bombycilla japonica
, and many others.
Some birds are common here, but rare in other parts of their
range, such as smew
, Parus cyanus,
, Bubo bubo.
Bureya River, Russia.
BBC Natural History Unit
Five species of cranes breed in Amur Basin. Demoiselle cranes,
and common cranes, Grus grus
, cranes are widespread,
but others are mostly endemic
to the area. Red-crowned
, Grus japonensis
, white-naped cranes,
and hooded cranes, Grus. monachus
cranes can be easily
seen on their wintering grounds in Japan, but it is much more
interesting and challenging to look for them during the breeding
, the southernmost part of
the Russian Far East, has especially diverse flora and fauna,
with a strange mixture of
Siberian and Oriental species and a lot of endemics. Here
the ecosystems face numerous problems, such as rapidly growing
Within a decade (1990-2000), local populations of snakes,
medicinal plants, musk deer
, Moschus moschiferus
Ursus arctos, Ursus tibetanus,
Now many species are caught and smuggled out of the country
pet and souvenir trade. International organizations try to
help protect some species, but they mostly care about large
such as tigers
Overcollecting of rare insects of Ussurilandis also a problem.
Among the birds suffering from illegal pet trade are robins,
, various finches
The Siberian musk deer, Moschus moschiferus,
a musk deer found in the mountain forests of Northeast Asia.
Its is most common in the taiga of southern Siberia, but is
also found in parts of Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Manchuria
and the Korean peninsula. It is largely nocturnal, and migrates
only over short distances.
It prefers altitudes of more than 2600 m. Adults are small,
weighing 717 kg.
The Siberian musk deer is classified as threatened by the
IUCN. It is hunted for its musk gland, which fetches prices
as high as $45,000 per kilogram. Only a few tens of grams
can be extracted from an adult male. It is possible to remove
the gland without killing the deer, but this is seldom done.
The most striking characteristics of the Siberian musk deer
are its vampire teeth and a face like a kangaroo. Males grow
the teeth for display instead of antlers. A distinct subspecies
roams the island of Sakhalin
|The Asian black bear, Ursus thibetanus,
also known as the moon bear or white-chested
bear is a medium-sized species of bear, largely adapted for
arboreal life, which occurs
through much of southern Asia, Korea, northeastern China, the
Russian far east and Honshu
and Shikoku islands of Japan.
It is classed by the IUCN as a vulnerable species, mostly due
to deforestation and active
hunting for its body parts. Though largely herbivorous, Asian
black bears can be very
aggressive toward humans, and have frequently attacked people
The species was described by Rudyard Kipling as "the most
bizarre of the ursine species."
Asian black bears are diurnal, though they become nocturnal
near human habitations.
They may live in family groups consisting of two adults and
two successive litters of young.
They will walk in a procession of largest to smallest. They
are good climbers of rocks and
trees, and will climb to feed, rest, sun, elude enemies and
hibernate. Some older bears may
become too heavy to climb. Half of their life is spent in trees
and they are one of the largest
arboreal mammals. In the Ussuri territory, black bears can spend
up to 15% of their time
in trees. Asian black bears break branches and twigs to place
under themselves when
feeding on trees, thus causing many trees in their home ranges
to have nest-like structures on
their tops.Asian black bears will rest for short periods in
nests on trees standing fifteen feet
or higher. Asian black bears do not hibernate over most of their
incl. picture: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asian_black_bear
Black Bear (Wroclaw zoo)
Black Bear suckling_cubs
Russia's most beautiful frog, is now common
only in Western pet stores.
of pet trade.
|The Fire-bellied Toads is a group comprising
eight species of small toads (typically no longer than 3,5cm)
belonging to the genus Bombina. Common variants of the
name 'Fire-bellied toad' include 'firebelly toad' and
"Fire-bellied" is derived from the brightly coloured
red- or yellow-and-black patterns on the toads' ventral regions,
which act as aposematic coloration, a warning to predators of
the toads' reputedly foul taste. The other parts of
the toads' skins are green or dark brown. When confronted with
a potential predator, these toads commonly
engage in an Unkenreflex, "Unken" being the plural
form of "Unke", German for firebellied toad. In the
Unkenreflex, the toad arches its back, raising its front and
back legs to display the aposematic coloration of its ventral
treefrog (female), photographed
Colorado Island, Panama
Photo: Christian R. Linder
Hylidae is a wide-ranging family of frogs commonly referred
to as "tree frogs and their allies". However,
the hylids include a diversity of frog species, many of which
do not live in trees, but are terrestrial or semi-aquatic.
Most hylids show adaptations suitable for an arboreal lifestyle,
including forward-facing eyes providing binocular vision, and
adhesive pads on the fingers and toes. In the non-arboreal species,
these features may be greatly reduced, or absent. The Cyclorana
species are burrowing frogs, that spend much of their lives
Hylids mostly feed on insects and other invertebrates, but some
larger species can feed on small vertebrates.
Source including photo:
Asian brown flycatcher,
Great Bustard, Otis tarda
|There are 420-450 species
of birds in Ussuriland (nobody knows
for sure). Here you can see
red-crowned cranes, white-necked and hooded cranes in
spring; minivets, buttonquails and paradise-flycatchers in summer;
lots of Arctic migrants in the fall;
Steller's sea eagles and great bustards in winter; scaled
mergansers and Blakiston's fish-owls year-round. Unfortunately,
many species are endangered or already extinct. In 1986,
I happened to be the last person to see rufous-backed bunting,
Emberiza jankowskii, in Russia. Some birds of this beautiful
species still survive in China, but their numbers decline there
Rufous-backed Bunting, Emberiza jankowskii
Justification This species has been uplisted to Endangered as
it is undergoing a very rapid population decline, perhaps primarily
owing to conversion of its grassland habitat for agriculture,
pasture and forestry. Surveys are urgently required to determine
its status over its large former range, and unless additional
stable populations are discovered in the near future it may
require uplisting to Critically Endangered.
It is a 16 cm small bird. Strongly rufescent bunting with bold
pattern and mantle streaks and pale underparts. Grey ear-coverts,
centre of breast and white wing-bars. Male has oval blackish-chestnut
belly patch. Non-breeding male has more obscured belly patch
duller, more heavily streaked upperparts.Female has browner
coverts and buffish breast and buff wing-bars.
Emberiza jankowskii breeds in extreme north-eastern North Korea
and in Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia and Jilin, China. In China,
it disperses south and west outside the breeding season, when
there are records from Liaoning, Hebei and Beijing. In Russia,
it was previously locally common in southern Primorye, with
a population estimated at several hundred pairs, but had disappeared
from its former breeding sites by the early 1970s, and there
have been no subsequent records. In the past, it was not uncommon
within its small range in North Korea, but there is little recent
information. In China, the breeding population at three sites
in Jilin province was estimated at 330-430 pairs in 1994, and
in the first half of the 20th century it was locally common
in Heilongjiang, however there are very few recent records and
it appears to have disappeared or drastically declined at most
of its known sites.
BirdLife International (2012) Species factsheet: Emberiza jankowskii.
Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/02/2012. Recommended
citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife
International (2012) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 27/02/2012.
Nests of some birds of Amur and Ussuri valleys, left to right:
Oriental stork, Ciconia boyciana,
Orange-flanked Robin, Luscinia cyanurus, Scaly Thrush,
Ashy Minivet, Pericrocotus divaricatus, and Daurian
Redstart, Phoenicurus auroreus.
For many years, the main concern of environmentalists
in Ussuriland was habitat loss in the beautiful
forests of the area, particularly in mixed forest zone. Korean
, Pinus koraensis, locally known as "cedar",
was logged despite its importance as food source for wildlife.
Now most old-growth forests
outside nature reserves have been lost. Another problem is
agricultural development in grasslands,
wetlands, meadows and woodlands of Southern Ussuriland. For
many East Asian plants and animals,
this is the northernmost part of their range.
There are also some endemics there, such as Reed Parrotbill,
Red Parrotbill, Paradoxornis heudei.
© Ulf Ståhle
Steller's sea eagle,
Sus scrofa ussuriensis,
subspecies of wild boar, Kedrovaya Pad',
As the regional economy is slowly making it out of decline,
environmental situation is steadily worsening. River valleys
are destroyed first because of their accessibility, so riparian
birds and other animals are the largest group of endangered
Meanwhile, local birds try to adapt to changing conditions and
new habitats. Some are successful, but many species are in decline.
Ten species are already extinct in the region, and more than
a hundred are endangered. The next 20-30 years will be the most
difficult time for the nature of the Far East - let's hope it
Nest of snow bunting,
in a pile of barbed wire,
Vrangel I., Russia
Nest of carrion crow,
Corvus corone, made
of electric cables,
Nest of Japanese skylark,
in a haystack,
Sakhalin I., Russia.
The population of wild vertebrate species fell by an average
one- third (31%) globally between 1970 and 2006, with the
especially severe in the tropics (59%) and in freshwater ecosystems
Observed trends in populations of wild species include:
* Farmland bird populations in Europe have declined by on
average 50% since 1980.
* Bird populations in North American grasslands declined by
nearly 40% between
1968 and 2003, showing a slight recovery
over the past five years; those in
North American drylands have declined by
nearly 30% since the late 1960s.
* Of the 1,200 waterbird populations with known trends, 44%
are in decline.
* 42% of all amphibian species and 40% of bird species are
declining in population.
Klyuchevskaya Sopka, Kamchatka.
Northern Pacific and Russian Arctic
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pictures, unless otherwise stated, Copyright © Vladimir