Active volcanoes / Aktive vulkaner:

Chiliques, Chile   

Cerro Chiliques (5778 m) 18.4.1998
© Copyright: Bernhard Mühr

Chiliques is a stratovocano at 5.778 m asl with a 500-meter (1,640-foot)-diameter circular
summit crater in northern Chile, with an edifice height of 1.300 m.
So far it has ben classified as a dormant volcano. Chiliques is situated at
23º34'S og 67º42'W. That is not so far south of the Lascar-volcano, and north of
a chain of old volcanoes, Cordon Puntas Negras - Chalviri.

April 15th, 2002
At January 6, 2002 nighttime thermal infrared image from Aster found a hot spot in the summit crater, as well as several others along the upper flanks of the volcano's edifice, indicating
new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24, 2000 showed no such hot spots. That should indicate without any doubt that Chiliques
is wakening up (I believe....)

Detail of map from
with additions made by us.

Stratovolcanoes such as Chiliques account for approximately 60 percent of Earth's volcanoes. They are marked by eruptions of cooler, stickier lavas such as andesite, dacite and rhyolite. Because these lavas tend to plug up volcanic plumbing, gas pressures can more easily build up
to high levels, often resulting in explosive eruptions. They are typically made up of about half lava and half loose or fragmented rock ejected from the volcano, and are therefore also commonly known as composite volcanoes. Mount Saint Helens in Washington and Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines are examples of stratovolcanoes.

The daytime image of Chiliques was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created
by displaying Aster bands 1, 2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The image cover an area of
7.5 by 7.5 kilometers (4.7 by 4.7 miles), and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude,
67.6 degrees west longitude.

Structure & Evolution
Chiliques is a simple volcano located directly south of Laguna Lejia . The most recent activity
in its vicinity may have been the eruption which formed the Cerro Overo craterlake(q.v.), 8 km to the north. Chiliques has a 500 m diameter circular summit crater and several young flank lava flows; the largest of these, is found on the northwest flank of the volcano extending for about 5 km
from the summit. Lava flows belonging to two older phases of activity from the ancestral
Chiliques are also present. These older flows are more extensive than those from the present volcano and extend for up to 10 km from the present summit.

Cordons Puntas Negras & Chalviri

TM image of the Cordon Puntas Negras - Chalviri. Centers indicated Cerros Cenizas (CC),
Aguas Calientes (A), Laguna Escondida (E), Chinchilla(C) and a small craterlake-like vent (M).
Also indicated are Volcan Puntas Negras (VPN) and Cerro Tuyajto (CT). Cerro Overo craterlake
and Laguna Lejia can be seen in the top left hand corner of the image. The salar to the
north is Aguas Calientes.

Picture and text:

This volcanic area is located from 23º37'S; 67º40'W to 23º41'S; 67º34'W.
Maximum Elevation is 5600m asl and the maximum Ridge Height is 1100m

Structure & Evolution
This confusing collection of numerous vents, lava flows, domes, and small cones forms two main chains ; Cordon Puntas Negras (CPN), a 20 km long volcanic complex trending roughly
southeast from Chiliques towards Volcan Punta Negra (VPN), and Cordon Chalviri
extending15 km southwards from Volcan Puntas Negras to Cerro Tuyajto (T).

At least 25 different vents are present within the complex, distributed over an area of
about 500 km2. Although this complex broadly resembles the smaller Escalante-Sairecabur complex (q.v), Cordon Puntas Negras is the result of a several different styles of activity which have produced constructs of differing character.

Typical structures are generally small cones a few hundred meters in height with well preserved summit craters (for example Cerros Cenizas (CC), Aguas Calientes Laguna Escondida (E)
and Chinchilla(C)) and short (5 km) lava flows, although it is difficult to locate the source
of many of the individual flows, or to relate them to a particular cone.

Much of the activity has been post-glacial as evidenced by the pristine morphology of the
features. The dominant style of activity appears to have been the eruption of andesitic lavas.

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