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Active volcanoes / Aktive vulkaner:

Canlaon, Philippines  

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Canlaon volcano (also spelled Kanlaon), the most active of the central Philippines, forms the
highest point on the island of Negros. The massive 2435-m-high stratovolcano is dotted with
fissure-controlled pyroklastic cones and craters, many of which are filled by crater-lakes.
The summit of Canlaon contains a broad northern crater with a crater-lake and a smaller,
but higher, historically active crater to the south. The largest debris avalanche known in the
Philippines traveled 33 km to the SW from Canlaon.
Historical eruptions, recorded since 1866, have typically consisted of phreatic explosions
of small-to-moderate size that produce minor ashfalls near the volcano.



September 19th, 2003
From PHIVOLCS the following summarized activity at Canlaon from 7 March
to 23 July 2003:
This included the ash ejections of 10 and 11 July . There were 46 ash explosions recorded
since March, characterized by emission of steam clouds with small amounts of ash rising
100-1,500 m above the active crater. Prevailing winds dispersed the ash mainly SW and
SE, which settled predominantly over the mid-upper slopes of the volcano.

Seismic activity remained elevated through this period, with epicenters of some high-
frequency events located near the active crater, focal depths ranged from near-surface
down to 18 km. From June to July, the numbers of recorded low-frequency volcanic
earthquakes and low-frequency short-duration harmonic tremor events increased.
This coincided with phreatic episodes between 8 June and 23 July 2003.

On 23 July an ash explosion was observed from Kanlaon Volcano Observatory,
8.5 km ESE of the crater. Ash-laden steam clouds were ejected to heights of ~800 m
above the active crater. After 23 July only weak steam emission was noted,
and seismic activity returned to low levels.

 Latest news always on top. Below are previous activity.

The crater at Canlaon


August 10th, 1996
At 14:31 an ash ejection at Canlaon killed three hikers (see red frame below) and emitted
a dirty-white steam-and-ash plume. The plume rose 1,500 m above the central crater at the
volcano's summit.
The ash ejection lasted about 24 minutes, based on seismic records. Accompanying the ash
ejection was a small explosion-type earthquake. The ejected ash drifted to NE and was
observed at an altitude of 7.6 and 11.3 km by aviators.
The Bureau of Meteorology - Darwin, issued a volcanic ash advisory, describing the plume
as extending SW for 110 km.
PHIVOLCS established a Level 1 alert but no evacuation was advised. They also promptly
warned the public to stay outside the 4-km-radius permanent danger buffer zone.
Based on the previous character of ash ejections of Canlaon, which were clustered in time, it was judged that the volcano could have more explosions without showing any additional
forewarning signs. After the ash ejection, there were moderate emissions of white to
dirty-white steam that rose 100 - 150 m before drifting NE.
On 11 August more emissions of white steam were noted between the hours 0353 and 0500.

Two mountaineering groups were present on the summit at the moment of the
explosion. A group of students from a Belgian University and their Filipino
guides, and two British visitors accompanied by a local guide.
Three people, one British and two Filipino were killed. Some Belgians and
Filipinos managed to make it off the mountain before darkness halted rescue
efforts, but other survivors were forced to spend the night there and were
retrieved the day after by helicopter.*).
Some of the 18 survivors were hospitalized because of injuries caused mainly
by falling ejecta.

*)Military helicopters begun bringing down the victims of Mt. Kanlaon's
Saturday eruption. Ten of the climbers were brought down Saturday night
and seven others, along with the three dead, were airlifted from Kanlaon's
crater rim down to Bacolod Sunday.
Most were weak and still in a state of shock when the choppers came by to
rescue them. Most of the injured were treated for serious burns.

October 11th, 1969
Canlaon Volcano on Negros Island erupted 2200 on 11 October (local time). Activity was
ash eruption only. Present activity slight emission of white steam. No lava flow observed.
Eruption consisted of ash laden clouds, air shock manifested during eruption.
Ash deposited on W slope of volcano.

Canlaon erupted at 2205 local time. An earthquake was felt in the vicinity. A mild ejection
of ashes on the western slope; eruption cloud of white smoke for 25 minutes; no report of
molten lava; very little change in physical and biological environment. Present activity is quiet.

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