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Richter's Scale / Richters skala

and Short form of the EMS-98

see below


Jordskjelvstyrken på
richterskalaen
Virkning Antall pr. år
Mindre enn 3,0
(ikke merkbart)
Registreres bare på instrumenter. 900 000
3,0 - 5,4
(lett til sterkt)
Merkbart for mennesker. Bare mindre skader. 30 000
5,5 - 6,0
(meget sterkt)
Skader på byggninger. 500
6,1 - 6,9
(voldsomt)
Bygninger styrter sammen. Store ødeleggelser. 100
7,0 - 7,9
(ødeleggende)
Få bygninger står igjen. Jorda sprekker. Jordskred. 20
Større enn 8,0
(katastrofalt)
Total ødeleggelse forekommer. Hvert 5. 10. år*)

Tabellen er hentet fra :http://www.pvv.ntnu.no/~dennisgl/semester/naturfag/skjelv/all.html,
en glimrende semesteroppgave om jordskjelv og vulkaner.

*) Jordskjelv > 8,0: 1989=1 1993=1 1994=2 1995=3 1996=1

Et jordskjelv som måler 6 på Richets Skala er ti ganger så kraftig som et på 5. Et skjelv på 5,2 vil være 2 ganger så kraftig som et på 5. Richters skala
er imidlertid ikke god nok efter dagens målestokk, og blir delvis erstattet innen seismologien med en nyere.
Se EMS nedenfor
---------------------------------------------------------



Richters scale
Value on the scale
Result
Numbers per year
Less than 3,0
(not felt)
Registered only by instruments 900 000
3,0 - 5,4
(middle to strong)
To be felt by people. Only minor damage.. 30 000
5,5 - 6,0
(very strong)
Damages on buildings 500
6,1 - 6,9
(violent)
Buildings collapses. Larde damages. 100
7,0 - 7,9
(damaging)
Few buildings left. Earth opens. Lavines. 20
Større enn 8,0
(catastrophic)
Total destruction happens every 5 to 10. year*)

Table from :http://www.pvv.ntnu.no/~dennisgl/semester/naturfag/skjelv/all.html,

*) Quakes > 8,0: 1989=1 1993=1 1994=2 1995=3 1996=1

A quake measuring 6 onRichets Scale is 10 times stronger than one at 5.
A quake of 5.2 will be twice (or 2 times) as strong as one at 5.
However, Richters scale is not valuable in to days world, and has been more or less outdated (?)
See EMS below.

and another one from USGS Survey



Short form of the EMS-98

The short form of the European Macroseismic Scale, abstracted from the Core Part, is intended to give a very simplified and generalized view of the EM Scale.
It can, e.g., be used for educational purposes. This short form is not suitable for intensity assignments.

EMS intensity Definition Description of typical observed effects

(abstracted)

I Not felt Not felt.
II Scarcely felt Felt only by very few individual people at rest in houses.
III Weak Felt indoors by a few people. People at rest feel a swaying or light trembling.
IV Largely observed Felt indoors by many people, outdoors by very few. A few people are awakened. Windows, doors and dishes rattle.
V Strong Felt indoors by most, outdoors by few. Many sleeping people awake. A few are frightened. Buildings tremble throughout. Hanging objects swing considerably. Small objects are shifted. Doors and windows swing open or shut.
VI Slightly damaging Many people are frightened and run outdoors. Some objects fall. Many houses suffer slight non-structural damage like hair-line cracks and fall of small pieces of plaster.
VII Damaging Most people are frightened and run outdoors. Furniture is shifted and objects fall from shelves in large numbers. Many well built ordinary buildings suffer moderate damage: small cracks in walls, fall of plaster, parts of chimneys fall down; older buildings may show large cracks in walls and failure of fill-in walls.
VIII Heavily damaging Many people find it difficult to stand. Many houses have large cracks in walls. A few well built ordinary buildings show serious failure of walls, while weak older structures may collapse.
IX Destructive General panic. Many weak constructions collapse. Even well built ordinary buildings show very heavy damage: serious failure of walls and partial structural failure.
X Very destructive Many ordinary well built buildings collapse.
XI Devastating Most ordinary well built buildings collapse, even some with good earthquake resistant design are destroyed.
XII Completely devastating Almost all buildings are destroyed.



bukkm.gif
ANIMALS

over 250

birdm.jpg
BIRDS

over 500

flower.jpg
FLOWERS

over 225
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