No, I don't mean origin of the humanity - you can read more about that
elsewhere, but rather the origing of my ancestors.
See also here: https://www.vulkaner.no/f/m7xfm5xfp.htm
Of course, on the two sites mentioned above, there are a long period
in the line back to Adam and Eve that are very legendary or
mythological, but as one scientist said: 'They are legendary, but yet
they might also have been real persons'. And as you know,
they are very difficult to reach to day, as none of them are available
neither on facebook nor on E-mail.
Traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age,
the Neolithic followed the terminal Holocene Epipaleolithic period and
commenced with the beginning of farming, which produced the "Neolithic
Revolution". It ended when metal tools became widespread
(in the Copper Age or Bronze Age; or, in some geographical regions,
in the Iron Age). The Neolithic is a progression of behavioral
and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild
and domestic crops and of domesticated animals.
So When did they begin farming and so on?.....
Sumer (from Akkadian umeru; Sumerian approximately "land
of the civilized kings" or "native land"was an ancient
civilization and historical region in southern
Mesopotamia, modern Iraq, during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age.
Although the earliest historical records in the region do not go back
than ca. 2900 BC, modern historians have asserted that Sumer was first
settled between ca. 4500 and 4000 BC by a non-Semitic people
(Of course, Shem was first born after the flood (2370 BC) who may
or may not have spoken the Sumerian language (pointing to the names
of cities, rivers,
basic occupations, etc. as evidence).
These conjectured, prehistoric people are now called "proto-Euphrateans"
or "Ubaidians", and are theorized to have evolved from the
of northern Mesopotamia (Assyria). The Ubaidians were the first civilizing
force in Sumer, draining the marshes for agriculture, developing trade,
establishing industries, including weaving, leatherwork, metalwork,
masonry, and pottery. However, some scholars such as Piotr Michalowski
Gerd Steiner, contest the idea of a Proto-Euphratean language or one
Descendants of Noah's
|Deluge ~2370 BC
Noah had 3 sons: Shem, Cam and Japhet
Arphaxad was the progenitor of the Chaldeans
This is confirmed by the Hurrian
(Nuzi) tablets, which render the name as Arip-hurrathe founder
Ancestor of Eber - the hebrews
Ebers other son, Joktan, had
13 sons, all of whom appear to have settled in Arabia.
Elams, also the ancient name for Persia
The Persians are thus descended from both Elam, the son of Shem,
and from Madai, the son of Japheth
Since the 1930s they have called their country Iran.
Asshur, also the Hebrew word for Assyria
Lud was the ancestor of the Lydians. Lydia was in what
is now Western Turkey. Their capital was Sardis.
Aram, also the Hebrew word for Syria.
The Syrians call themselves Arameans, and their language is
Cam's sons (Ham's)
Settled in south-west Asia and Africa
Canaan: Gave name to the area of Canaan, later Palestine.
Also father to the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites,
the Hivites, the Arkites, the Si'nites, the Arvadites,
the Zemarites and the Hamathites.
Cush, also the Hebrew word for old Ethiopia, where he
Mizraim, also the Hebrew word for Egypt, where he settled
Puth, also the Hebrew name for Libya.
The ancient river Phut was in Libya.
Josephus* says, Phut also was the founder of Libia,
and called the inhabitants Phutites, from himself.
Greeks, Aryans of India
Javan: People of Greece and Cyprus.
Javans sons were Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim
all of whom have connections with the Greek people.
The Elysians (an ancient Greek people) obviously received their
name from Elishah. Tarshish or Tarsus was located in the region
of Cilicia (modern Turkey).
Of Javan's sons:
Elishah: Greeks ("Hellas" is a form of word Elishah)
Tarshish: Spain, Carthage in North Africa
Kittim: Greeks, Cyprus, Macedonia
Dodanium: Greeks, Rhodes, Dardanelles
Gomer. People living in area of the Black Sea, Germany
Gomerites, lived in Galatia now part of Turkey, (Gaul), later
moved to France (Gaul) and Spain (Galicia), and to Wales.
(welsh language is called Gomeraeg.)
Ancient Armenia, Turkey named after Togarmah, one of Gomer's
sons. Ashkenaz is hebrew for Germany
Ripath, the son of Gomer: Generally Europe, Carpathians
Togarmah, the son of Gomer: Armenians, Germany and Turkey
Many commentators connect Togarmah with the Armenians. The Armenians
themselves traditionally claim to be descended from Haik,
son of Thorgom. Ancient Greek writers speak of the Armenians
as famed for their horses and mules.
Ashkenaz,s descendants moved to Germany, Armenia, Scandinavia,
Denmark, northern islands of Europe and European
(The name Ashkenaz is considered by archaeologists as equivalent
to the Assyrian Ashguzai, which term was evidently applied to
the ancient Scythians of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea area.)
See next chapter: Ashkenaz, son of Gomer
In the rabbinic literature, the kingdom of Ashkenaz was first
associated with the Scythian region, then later with the Slavic
territories, and, from the 11th century onwards, with northern
Europe and Germany. The region of Ashkenaz was centred
on the Rhineland and the Palatinate, in what is now the westernmost
part of Germany
In rabbinic literature from the 11th century, Ashkenaz is believed
to be the ruler of a kingdom in the North and of the
Northern and Germanic people.
Magog: Reference to "Gog" referring to Georgia,
a region near the Black Sea and Scythians.
Father of the Magorites, Scythians - Georgia, Ukraina and part
Madai or Medes (Persia)
Also settled in part of India.
The Medes (/midz/) (or Madai) (from Old Persian Mada-) were
an ancient Iranian people] who lived in an area known as Media
and who spoke a northwestern Iranian language referred to as
the Median language. Their arrival to the region is associated
with the first wave of Iranic tribes in the late second millennium
BCE (the Bronze Age collapse) through the beginning of the first
Ezekiel mentions him along with Gog and Meshech .
Tiglath-pileser I, king of Assyria in about 1100 BC, refers
to the descendants of Tubal as the Tabali.
Josephus* recorded their name as the Thobelites, who
were later known as Iberes. (Iberia)
They also came to Georgia (Tbilisi (the capital) is named after
Moved later north, crossed Caucasus to the river Tobol and hence
to the famous city of Tobolsk, north of the (central)
Black Sea, and finally went to Russia and built the city of
Meshech: Also travelled into Russia, and gave name
to what is now Moscow.(mame was Muskovi).
Tiras: Thracians, possibly the Etruscans of Italy.
(Tyr·se·noi' were a seafaring people of the islands
and coastlands of the Aegean Sea)
other source: Bulgaria - Romania
According to Josephus*, the descendants of grandson Tiras
were called Thirasians. The Greeks changed their name to Thracians.
Thrace reached from Macedonia on the south to the Danube River
on the north to the Black Sea on the east.
It took in much of what became Yugoslavia.
World Book Encyclopaedia says: The people of Thrace
were savage Indo-Europeans, who liked warfare and looting.
Tiras was worshipped by his descendants as Thuras, or Thor,
the god of thunder.
* Titus Flavius Josephus (37 c. 100), also called
Joseph ben Matityahu (Biblical Hebrew: ???? ?? ??????, Yosef
ben Matityahu), was a 1st-century Romano-Jewish historian
and hagiographer who was born in Jerusalem - then part of Roman
(Much of the he above information
came from Henry M. Morris's book The Genesis Record, pages 247-249,
and from different other sources from where smaller details
have been copied.))
Askenaz in Royal genealogies (1732)
The 1732 some Royal genealogies by James Anderson reports a
significant number of antiquarian or mythographic traditions
regarding Askenaz as the first king of ancient Germany, in the
Askenaz, or Askanes, called by Aventinus Tuisco the Giant, and
by others Tuisto or Tuizo (whom Aventinus makes the 4th son
of Noah, and that he was born after the flood, but without authority
- according to what we have found, he was actually a descendant
of Noah through Japhet and Gomer) was sent by Noah into
Europe, after the flood 131 years, with 20 Captains, and made
a settlement near the Tanais, on the West coast of the Euxin
sea (by some called Asken from him) and there founded the kingdom
of the Germans and the Sarmatians... when Askenaz himself was
24 years old, for he lived above 200 years, and reigned 176.
In the vocables of Saxony and Hessia, there are some villages
of the name Askenaz, and from him the Jews call the Germans
Askenaz, but in the Saxonic and Italian, they are called Tuiscones,
from Tuisco his other name. In the 25th year of his reign, he
partitioned the kingdom into Toparchies, Tetrarchies, and Governments,
and brought colonies from diverse parts to increase it.
He built the city Duisburg, made a body of laws in verse, and
invented letters, which Kadmos later imitated, for the Greek
and High Dutch are alike in many words.
The 20 captains or dukes that came with Askenaz are:
|Sarmata, from whom Sarmatia;
Dacus or Danus Dania or Denmark;
Geta from whom the Getae;
Gotha from whom the Goths;
Tibiscus, people on the river Tibiscus;
Mocia - Mysia;
Phrygus or Brigus - Phrygia;
Thynus - Bithynia;
Dalmata - Dalmatia;
Jader Jadera Colonia;
|Albanus from whom Albania;
Zavus the river Save;
Salon - the town Sale,
Azalus the Azali;
Adulas, Dietas and Ibalus
people that of old dwelt between
the rivers Oenus and Rhenus;
Epirus, from whom Epirus.
Askenaz had a brother called Scytha (say the Germans) the
father of the Scythians, for which the Germans have of old been
called Scythians too (very justly, for they came mostly from
old Scythia) and Germany had several ancient names; for that
part next to the Euxin was called Scythia, and the country of
the Getes, but the parts east of the Vistule or Weyssel were
called Sarmatia Europaea, and westward it was called Gallia,
Celtica, Allemania, Francia and Teutonia; for old Germany comprehended
the greater part of Europe; and those called Gauls were all
old Germans; who by ancient authors were called Celts, Gauls
and Galatians, which is confirmed by the historians Strabo and
Aventinus, and by Alstedius in his Chronology, p. 201 etc. Askenaz,
or Tuisco, after his death, was worshipped as the ambassador
and interpreter of the gods, and from thence called the first
German Mercury, from Tuitseben to interpret.
Sumer (from Akkadian umeru; Sumerian, approximately "land
of the civilized kings" or "native land" was an ancient
civilization and historical region in southern Mesopotamia, modern
Iraq, during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age. Although the
earliest historical records in the region do not go back much further
than ca. 2900 BC, modern historians have asserted that Sumer was
first settled between ca. 4500 and 4000 BC by a non-Semitic people
who may or may not have spoken the Sumerian language (pointing to
the names of cities, rivers, basic occupations, etc. as evidence).
These conjectured, prehistoric people are now called "proto-Euphrateans"
or "Ubaidians", and are theorized to have evolved from
the Samarra culture of northern Mesopotamia (Assyria). The Ubaidians
were the first civilizing force in Sumer, draining the marshes for
agriculture, developing trade, and establishing industries, including
weaving, leatherwork, metalwork, masonry, and pottery. However,
some scholars such as Piotr Michalowski and Gerd Steiner, contest
the idea of a Proto-Euphratean language or one substrate language.
(Substratum, in linguistics, a language that influences but is supplanted
by a second language)
Sumerian civilization took form in the Uruk period (4th millennium
BC), continuing into the Jemdat Nasr and Early Dynastic periods.
During the third millennium BC, a close cultural symbiosis developed
between the Sumerians (who spoke a Language Isolate) and the Semitic
Akkadian speakers, which included widespread bilingualism.
The influence of Sumerian on Akkadian (and vice versa) is evident
in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a massive scale, to syntactic,
morphological, and phonological convergence. This has prompted scholars
to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the third millennium as a sprachbund.
(A Sprachbund ["federation of languages" in German]
also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence,
diffusion area or language crossroads is a group of languages
that have become similar in some way because of geographical proximity
and language contact.) Sumer was conquered by the Semitic-speaking
kings of the Akkadian Empire around 2270 BC (short chronology),
but Sumerian continued as a sacred language.
The Sumerian city of Eridu, on the coast of the Persian Gulf, was
the world's first city, where three separate cultures fused -
1. That of peasant Ubaidian farmers, living in mud-brick
huts and practicing irrigation;
2. That of mobile nomadic Semitic pastoralists living in
black tents and following herds of sheep and goats;
3. that of fisher folk, living in reed huts in the marshlands,
who may have been the ancestors of the Sumerians.
The surplus of storable food created by this economy allowed
the population of this region to settle in one place, instead
of migrating as hunter gatherers. It also allowed for a much greater
population density, and in turn required an extensive labour force
and division of labour with many specialised arts and crafts.
Sumer was also the site of early development of writing, progressing
from a stage of proto-writing in the mid 4th millennium BC to writing
proper in the third millennium.
Others have suggested a continuity of Sumerians, from the indigenous
hunter-fisherfolk traditions, associated with the Arabian bifacial
assemblages found on the Arabian littoral. The Sumerians themselves
claimed kinship with the people of Dilmun, associated with Bahrein
in the Persian Gulf.
Juris Zarins has suggested that they may have been the people living
in the region of the Persian Gulf before it flooded at the end
of the Ice Age.
It is interesting to note
The approximate time of the tower of Babel, built by Nimrod, may
be drawn from the following information: Peleg lived from 2269 to
2030 B.C.E. His name meant Division, for in
his days the earth [that is, earths population]
was divided; Jehovah scattered
them from there over all the surface of the earth. (Ge 10:25;
A text of Skarkalisharri, king of Agade (Accad) in
patriarchal times, mentions his restoring a temple-tower at Babylon,
implying that such a structure existed prior to his reign.
Genesis 10:10 in the Bible states regarding Nimrod:
wonder they spoke different languages, "which included widespread
bilingualism" - see above text
And the beginning of his kingdom came to be Ba'bel and E'rech
and Ac'cad and Cal'neh,
in the land of Shi'nar
As in Egypt and the eastern
Mediterranean, radiocarbon dates run one or two centuries earlier than
the dates proposed by archaeologists.
It is not at all clear which group is right, if either. Mechanisms have
been proposed for explaining why radiocarbon dates in the region
might be skewed. Equally logical arguments have been made suggesting
that the archaeological dates are too late. Time will tell.
of the world showing approximate centers of origin of agriculture
and its spread in prehistory:
the Fertile Crescent (11,000 BC), the Yangtze and Yellow River
basins (9000 BC) and the New Guinea Highlands (90006000
Central Mexico (50004000 BC), Northern South America (50004000
BC), sub-Saharan Africa (50004000 BC, exact location unknown),
eastern USA (40003000 BC)
this will be changed later....
The ancient Near East is considered the cradle of
civilization. It was the first to practice intensive year-round
agriculture, it gave the rest of the world the
first writing system, invented the potter's wheel and then the vehicular-
and mill wheel, created the first centralized governments, law codes
as well as introducing social stratification, slavery and organized
warfare, and it laid the foundation for the fields of astronomy and
Early evidence for proto-Chinese millet agriculture is radiocarbon-dated
to about 7000 BC. Farming gave rise to the Jiahu culture (7000 to 5800
At Damaidi in Ningxia, 3,172 cliff carvings dating to 60005000
BC have been discovered,
The following traits of the Proto-Indo-Europeans and their environment
are widely agreed-upon but still hypothetical due to their reconstructed
Some of the basic facts are:
Stockbreeding and animal husbandry, including domesticated cattle,
horses, and dogs.
Agriculture and cereal cultivation, including technology commonly
ascribed to late Neolithic farming communities, e.g., the plow.
A climate with winter snow.
Transportation by or across water.
The solid wheel, used for wagons, but not yet chariots with spoked
Worship of a sky god, dyeus phater (lit. "sky father"Ancient
Greek: Zeus (pater); dieu-phater. Latin Jupiter; Illyrian Deipaturos)
Oral heroic poetry or song lyrics that used stock phrases (cf.
Homeric imperishable fame and wine-dark sea)
A patrilineal kinship system based on relationships between men.
The Proto-Indo-Europeans were a patrilineal society, relying largely
on agriculture, but partly on animal husbandry, notably of cattle
They had domesticated horses (cf. Latin equus). The cow played
a central role, in religion and mythology as well as in daily
A man's wealth would have been measured by the number of his animals
They practiced a polytheistic religion centered on sacrificial
rites, probably administered by a priestly caste.
Burials in barrows or tomb chambers apply to the kurgan culture,
in accordance with the original version of the Kurgan hypothesis,
but not to the previous Sredny Stog culture nor to the contemporary
Corded Ware culture, both of which cultures are also generally
associated with PIE. Important leaders would have been buried
with their belongings in kurgans, and possibly also with members
of their households or wives (human sacrifice).
Many Indo-European societies know a threefold division of priests,
a warrior class, and a class of peasants or husbandmen.
Such a division was suggested for the Proto-Indo-European society
by Georges Dumézil.
If there was a separate class of warriors, it probably consisted
of single young men. They would have followed a separate warrior
code unacceptable in the society outside their peer-group. Traces
of initiation rites in several Indo-European societies suggest
that this group identified itself with wolves or dogs.
As for technology, reconstruction indicates a culture of the late
Neolithic bordering on the early Bronze Age, with tools and weapons
of very likely of
"natural bronze" (i.e., made from copper ore naturally
rich in silicon or arsenic).
Silver and gold were known, but not silver smelting (as PIE has
no word for lead, a by-product of silver smelting), thus suggesting
that silver was imported.
Sheep were kept for wool, and textiles were woven.
The wheel was known, certainly for ox-drawn wagons.
Chronology of the ancient Near East
For the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC the following
periods need to be distinguished:
1. Early Bronze Age: A series of rulers and dynasties whose
existence is based mostly on the Sumerian King List besides some
that are attested epigraphically (e.g. En-me-barage-si). No absolute
dates within a certainty better than a century can be assigned
to this period.
2. Middle to Late Bronze Age: Beginning with the Akkadian
Empire around 2300 BC, the chronological evidence becomes internally
more consistent. Essentially, for this period, a good picture
can be drawn of who succeeded whom, and synchronisms between Mesopotamia,
the Levant and the more robust chronology of Ancient Egypt can
be established. The assignment of absolute dates is a matter of
dispute; the conventional middle chronology fixes the sack of
Babylon at 1595 BC while the short chronology fixes it at 1531
3.The Bronze Age collapse: a "Dark Age" begins
with the fall of Babylonian Dynasty III (Kassite) around 1200
BC, the invasions of the Sea Peoples and the collapse of the Hittite
4.Early Iron Age: around 900 BC, historical data, written
records become more numerous once more, with the rise of the Neo-Assyrian
Empire, enabling the certain assignment of absolute dates. Classical
sources such as the Canon of Ptolemy, the works of Berossus and
the Hebrew Bible provide chronological support and synchronisms.
An eclipse in 763 BC anchors the Assyrian list of imperial officials.
Corded Ware culture (also Battle-axe culture) is an enormous
Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age archaeological grouping, flourishing
ca. 3200 - 2300 BC. It receives its name from the characteristic
pottery of the era; wet clay was decoratively incised with cordage,
i.e., string. It is known mostly from its burials.
The Corded Ware culture (in Middle Europe ca. 29002450/2350
cal. BC), alternatively characterized as the Battle Axe culture
or Single Grave culture, is an
enormous European archaeological horizon that begins in the late Neolithic
(Stone Age), flourishes through the Copper Age and culminates in the
early Bronze Age.
Corded Ware culture is associated with some of the Indo-European family
of languages by many scholars and believed to be related to the Catacomb
culture pottery from the cemetary at Lilla Bedinge, Skåne,
Around 2400 BC the people of the Corded Ware replaced
their predecessors and expanded to Danubian and Nordic areas of western
One related branch invaded Denmark and southern Sweden, while the mid-Danubian
basin, though showing more continuity, shows also clear traits
of new Indo-European elites (Vucedol culture).
The Swedish-Norwegian Battle Axe culture, or the Boat Axe culture,
appeared ca. 2800 BC and is known from about 3000 graves from Skåne
Uppland and Trøndelag. There is no indication that this was an
especially violent time. The "battle-axes" were primarily
a status object. There are strong
continuities in stone craft traditions, and very little evidence of
any type of full-scale migration, least of all a violent one. The old
ways were discontinued as the corresponding cultures on the continent
changed, and the farmers living in Scandinavia took part in those changes
since they belonged to the same network.
Settlements on small, separate farmsteads without any defensive protection
is also a strong argument against the people living there being aggressors.
Recently also the mixture of this culture with Barbed Wire Beaker culture
elements from the west that reached until Sweden in the Late Neolithic,
ultimately derived from the same Corded Ware stock, has come into the
About 3000 battle axes have been found, in sites distributed over all
of Scandinavia, but they are sparse in Norrland and northern Norway.
100 settlements are known, and their remains are negligible as they
are located on continually used farmland, and have consequently been
Einar Østmo reports sites inside the Arctic Circle in the Lofoten
Islands, and as far north as the present city of Tromsø.
In the context of the entry of Germanic into the region, Einar Østmo
emphasizes that the Atlantic and North Sea coastal regions of Scandinavia,
circum-Baltic areas were united by a vigorous maritime economy, permitting
a far wider geographical spread and a closer cultural unity than interior
continental cultures could attain. He points to the widely disseminated
number of rock carvings assigned to this era, which display "thousands"
To seafaring cultures like this one, the sea is a highway and not a
Scholars estimate that PIE may have been spoken as a single language
(before divergence began) around 3700 BC, though estimates by different
can vary by more than a millennium. The most popular hypothesis for
the origin and spread of the language is the
Kurgan hypothesis, which postulates an origin in the Pontic-Caspian
steppe of Eastern Europe.
The Sun Chariot
was found in September 1902, when the former bog Trundholm Mose
in northwestern Zealand, Denmark, was ploughed for the first
The Sun Chariot was made in the Early Bronze Age around 1400
BC. The elegant spiral ornamentation that graces the golden
sun disc reveals its Nordic origin. The Sun Chariot illustrates
the idea that the sun was drawn on its eternal journey by a
divine horse. A sun image and the horse have been placed on
wheels to symbolize the motion of the sun.
A chariot is a type of carriage using animals (almost
always horses) to provide rapid motive power. Chariots were used for
war as well as more peaceable pursuits
such as hunting or racing for sport, and as a chief vehicle of many
ancient peoples, when speed of travel was desired rather than how much
weight could be carried.
Ox carts, proto-chariots, were built by the Proto-Indo-Europeansand
also built in Mesopotamia as early as 3000 BC.
Early chariots on the Standard of Ur, ca. 2600 BC.
Public domain - but see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Standard_of_Ur_chariots.jpg
spread of the chariot. This map combines various classes of
information, historical and archaeological. The 'isochrones'
as given should not be considered more than rough approximations,
give or take a century.
|2000 BC: area of the earliest
known spoke-wheeled chariots (Sintashta-Petrovka culture)
1900 BC: extent of the Andronovo culture, expanding from
its early Sintashta-Petrovka phase; spread of technology in thisarea
would have been unimpeded and practically instantaneous
1800 BC: extent of the great steppes and half-deserts of
Central Asia, approximate extent of the early Indo-Iranian diaspora
at that time. Note that early examples of chariots appear in Anatolia
as early as around this time.
1700 BC: unknown, early period of spread beyond the steppes
1600-1200 BC: the Kassite period in Mesopotamia, rise to
notability of the chariot in the Ancient Near East, introduction
to China, possibly also to the Punjab and the Gangetic plain (Rigveda)
and E and N Europe
(Trundholm Sun Chariot), assumed spread of the chariot as part
of Late Bronze Age technology
1000-500 BC: Iron Age spread of the chariot to W Europe
by Celtic migrations
Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, around 1200 BCE
Regarding the question of ethnic origins, evidence
developed by archaeologists and linguists suggests that a people or
group of peoples sharing a common material
culture dwelt in a region defined by the Nordic Bronze Age culture between
1700 BCE and 600 BCE.
Looks like we Scandinavians lived here very, very long ago, but guess
will be extremely difficult to look up any ancestors.
The Germanic tribes then inhabited southern Scandinavia, Schleswig-Holstein
and Hamburg, but subsequent Iron Age cultures of the same region,
like Wessenstedt (800 to 600 BCE) and Jastorf, are also in consideration.
The change of Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic has been
defined by the first sound shift (or Grimm's law) and must have
occurred when mutually intelligible dialects or languages in a Sprachbund
were still able to convey such a change to the whole region.
So far it has been impossible to date this event conclusively.
The precise interaction between these peoples is not known; however,
they are tied together and influenced by regional features and migration
patterns linked to
prehistoric cultures like Hügelgräber, Urnfield, and La Tene.
A deteriorating climate in Scandinavia around 850 BCE to 760 BCE and
a later and more rapid one
around 650 BCE might have triggered migrations to the coast of Eastern
Germany and further toward the Vistula. A contemporary northern expansion
drew part of these peoples into the Celtic hemisphere, including nordwestblock
areas and the region of Elp culture (1800 BCE to 800 BCE).
At around this time, this culture became influenced by Hallstatt techniques
for extracting bog iron from the ore in peat bogs, ushering in the Pre-Roman
The accumulation of Archaeogenetic evidence which uses genetic analysis
to trace migration patterns since the 1990s has added new elements to
. Cavalli-Sforza (2000) states that "It is clear that, genetically
speaking, peoples of the Kurgan steppe (area above
the Black Sea and Caspian Sea) descended at least in part from people
of the Middle Eastern Neolithic who immigrated there from Turkey."
Now, we are almost back in the Garden of Eden.....
distribution of R1a1a adapted from Underhill et al (2009).
Geneticists have noted the correlation of a specific
haplogroup R1a1a defined by the M17 (SNP marker) of the Y chromosome
and speakers of Indo-European
languages in Europe and Asia.
In molecular evolution, a haplogroup
is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor
having the same single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation
in all haplotypes. Because a haplogroup consists of similar
haplotypes, this is what makes it possible to predict a haplogroup
from haplotypes. A SNP test confirms a haplogroup. Haplogroups
letters of the alphabet, and
refinements consist of additional number and letter combinations,
for example R1b1. Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA haplogroups
have different haplogroup designations. Haplogroups pertain
to deep ancestral origins dating back thousands of years.
Subsequent studies on ancient DNA tested the hypothesis.
Skeletons from the Andronovo culture horizon (strongly supposed to be
culturally Indo-Iranian) of south Siberia were tested for DNA. Of the
10 males, 9 carried Y-DNA R1a1a (M17). Fairly close matches
were found between the ancient DNA STR haplotypes and those in living
persons in both eastern Europe and Siberia.
Mummies in the Tarim Basin (middle of map, north of Bay of Bengal) also
proved to carry R1a1a and were presumed to be ancestors
of Tocharian speakers. (The Tocharians or Tokharians were inhabitants
of medieval oasis city-states on the northern edge of the
Tarim Basin (modern Xinjiang, China).
The DNA testing of remains from kurgans also indicated
a high prevalence of people with characteristics such as blue (or green)
eyes, fair skin and light hair,
implying an origin close to Europe for this population. (I have blue
eyes and light hair....)
We can find validation from research
scientists who study human genetics. They claim that lineages derived
from known people groups did in fact
appear to have migrated from the "Near East", "Middle
East" or "Mesopotamia" (also called the "Cradle
of Civilization" or the "Cradle of Mankind")
sometime during prehistory. This information is derived from DNA haplogroups.
Haplogroups are used in DNA tests for markers that give a broad
or regional picture; haplotypes are one person's results on various
DNA tests. Data comes from either Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) passed down
from a father,
or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) passed down from a mother. Both can be
used to define genetic populations from one generation
to the next intact. Here we attest there was a first pair, Adam and
Eve. Scientists have traced the mitochondrial DNA in all living humans
a single female, and similarly, genetic markers in all males in the
world today can be traced back to a single male. Y-chromosome Adam and
mitochondrial Eve are
connected to everyone now living by an unbroken father-to-son or mother-to-daughter
line (including everyone else in their generations who's ancestors are
through one or more father-to-daughter or mother-to-son links). Haplogroup
classifications are based
on identification of genetic markers which a population of individuals
share, passed down from an ancient but common ancestor. These genetic
markers are evolving as new markers are found, sometimes resulting from
occasional mutations to DNA. Different populations carry distinct markers.
Sorry to say, I do not understand much of this, but several web-sites
seem to agree, so guess will find out more as time goes by.
||Evidence for diverse migrations into the Americas
comes from research on living American Indian populations, which
includes data from Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that is passed down
from a mother to her children from one generation to the next intact.
These studies have consistently shown similarities (deep ancestry)
between American Indians and recent populations in Asia,
Siberia and northern Scandinavia. These groups include the Lapps
in northern Europe/Scandinavia, the Chukchi and Yukaghir in Siberia,
plus Indians and Eskimos/Aleuts throughout Canada and North America.
There is a wealth of information on the genetic relationship between
early Taiwanese populations and southeast Asian, Oceanic (South
Pacific) and Native American descendants. Ancient American Indian
skeletal remains show a range of physical attributes (round-headed)
suggesting separate migrations of different populations from Asia
and the South Pacific, representing 97 percent of all modern American
What of the other 3 percent?
There are exceptions. A 1998 DNA study conducted by the Center
for Molecular Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta,
GA discovered a mtDNA strain in roughly 3% of American Indians
(Amerindians) called "Haplogroup X" which suggests a
prehistoric migration of peoples to the Americas from the European
theater. This genetic inheritance likely reflects transatlantic
links since Haplogroup X is not found in Asians, demonstrating
the DNA did not originate from those Asians who arrived in the
Americas via the Bering Strait. Other researchers conclude that
these transatlantic migrations took place before the Asian migrations
into Canada and North America. Some experts believe that Haplogroup
X provides concrete evidence of European ancestry for certain
Native Americans (noted below). For example, the Algonquian Indians
(Mahicans/Ojibwe) have as high as 40 percent of Haplogroup X,
and their distant relatives, the Siouan family of tribes (Sioux),
have as high as 15 percent of the DNA. Experts suggest a large
amount of gene flow occurred between Algonquian-speaking and Siouan-speaking
groups, consistent with archaeological and linguistic evidence.
These tribes, initially arriving along the eastern shores of North
America, migrated deep inland, also north into Canada. They are
the popular red-skinned tribes having a long-head shape similar
to that of early Italic peoples in Europe. They are thought to
be descendants of Canaanites (Phoenicians) who intermarried with
Indo-Europeans while migrating across Europe, and subsequently
sailing to North America.
Looking at the map above I am wondering whom really
reigned during the period of the Roman Empire. Looks like all kinds
have been wandering around, and taken over - and established a lot of
other 'Empires'..... During my research for my ancestors, I have
so far met the most of those people in the lines backwards through time.
Both the Vandals, Visigoth, Ostrogoths, Huns, Saxcons, Jutes,
Angles, Franks and Goths. And one thing they all have had in commen
are that the lines of ancestors in many cases go back to the same person,
History shows that his people, the Azes, did come from the area around
the Azov Sea, where the borders of
Ukrainia and Russia meets the Black Sea coast.
The map above, however, shows thow people migrated during
a period later that Odin is said to have left Azov. It is believed that
Odin and his people left Azov around the beginning of common era, when
the romans intered into their area. On nis way to Northern
Europe, he left some of his sons as rulers of smaller areas they went
through, and looking at the descendents of his sons, you will end
up with the Angles, the Franks, the Jutes and the Saxons. Not showed
on the map above, they also established kingdoms in Scandinavia -
no wonder then that the Goths at a little later time, went back to where
their ancestors came from, namely the area near Azov.
Let's have one example: The Rye.
Rye is one of a number of species that grow wild in central and eastern
Turkey, and in adjacent areas. Domesticated rye occurs in small
quantities at a number
of Neolithic sites in (Asia Minor) Turkey, but is otherwise virtually
absent from the archaeological record until the Bronze Age of central
Europe, c. 18001500 BC.
Rye originates, as most other such seads, from the fertile 'Half-Moon-Area,
commonly known as what is to day kurdian areas of Turkey, Iran, Iraq
According to language-research its origin must have been in Caucasus
and the north-eastern part of the Black Sea areas.. That would place
it to the area around
the lower part of River Don.
Map of River
Don and Sea of Azov
of the River Don
Since the Middle Ages people have cultivated rye widely in Central and
Eastern Europe. It serves as the main bread cereal in most areas east
of the French-German
border and north of Hungary. In Southern Europe, it was cultivated on
How was it brought to Europe? If you look at the map above, the Ostrogoths
and the Visigoths, and perhaps even the Huns, might have
brought it when they came into Europe during the early Middle Age. So
in view of plant-geographical knowledge, genetics, paleobonical, linguistics
researchers results, the geographical origin of rye is between the Ararat-mountains
hillsides and the Van sea (eastern
Turkey near Armenia)..
ear of rye
What is even more interesting to me, is the fact that
the rye came into Scandinavia during the first century of Commen Era.
is was taken into common use between ~100-200 CE.
Map of Scythia
More interestingly is the fact that cultivation of hashish,
often known as "hash", a cannabis product, was widely spread
in the area
north of the Azov sea. In written history Herodot wrote about hashis
in the 5th century BCE, and was said to be cultivated in the
land of the Skyhs. (See map above). Still today it grows wild in the
area between the Caspian Sea and the Aral Sea.
Archeological and historical facts dates the use of hash as early as
the second and third century CE (AD) in Norway and Sweden.
That is right after Odin and his people should have arrived Scandinavia.
About the same time it also arrived in North-western Germany,
Western France and the Britsh Isles.