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LONG TIME AGO II.....

 
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Some researches give the length of each generation - that is time from father to first son - to 30-32 years.
This is most common for births in common era. However, at older times, before AD, this does not allways be correct, as shown.

Various sources set the time of the deluge to about 1875 BC, based on 24 generations from Noah to David, David born 1107 + 24 generations x 32 years = Noah at 1875 BC, some sources even earlier. However, following shows this is not allways a good way to do it. Others count from 1.000 BC back to apprx. 1750 BC

"The earliest written flood myth is found in the Mesopotamian Epic of Atrahasis and Epic of Gilgamesh texts. Many scholars believe that Noah and the Biblical Flood story are derived from the Mesopotamian version, predominantly because Biblical mythology that is today found in Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Mandeanism shares overlapping consistency with far older written ancient Mesopotamian story of The Great Flood, and that the early Hebrews were known to have lived in Mesopotamia.

Gilgamesh’s historical reign is believed to have been approximately 2700 BCE,] shortly before the earliest known written stories. The discovery of artifacts associated with Aga and Enmebaragesi of Kish, two other kings named in the stories, has lent credibility to the historical existence of Gilgamesh."
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noah
Well illustrating why secular histories do not qualify as the standard of accuracy by which to judge Bible chronology is this statement by archaeological writer C. W. Ceram, commenting on the modern science of historical dating: “Anyone approaching the study of ancient history for the first time must be impressed by the positive way modern historians date events which took place thousands of years ago. In the course of further study this wonder will, if anything, increase.
For as we examine the sources of ancient history we see how scanty, inaccurate, or downright false, the records were even at the time they were first written.
And poor as they originally were, they are poorer still as they have come down to us: half destroyed by the tooth of time or by the carelessness and rough usage of
men.” He further describes the framework of chronological history as “a purely hypothetical structure, and one which threatens to come apart at every joint.”—
The Secret of the Hittites, 1956, pp. 133, 134.
At least as far back as the reign of Egypt took a strong interest in the ancient Near East. At times they occupied portions of the region, a favor returned in later
days by the Assyrians. Some key synchronisms:

Peace treaty between Ramses II of Egypt (in his 21st year of reign) and of the Hittites. Recorded by both Egyptian and Hittite records.


From the creation of Adam
(Genesis 5:1-29; 7:6)
to Set, Adam's son 130
to Enosh's Set's son 105
to Kenan, Enosh's son 90
to Mahalalel, Kenan's son 70
to Jared, Mahalalel's son 65
to Enoch, Jared's son 162
to Methuselah, Enoch's son 65
to Lamech, Methuselah's son 187
to Noah 182
to the Flood 600
Total 1,656 years
From the beginning of the Flood
(Genesis 11:10 to 12:4)
to Arpachshad 2
to Shelah, Arphachshad's son 35
to Eber, Shelah's son 30
to Peleg, Eber's son 34
to Reu, Peleg's son 30
to Serug, Reu's son 32
to Nahor, Serug's son 30
to Terah, Nahor's son 29
To the death of Terah 205
(Abraham was then 75 years old)
Total 427 years
Exodus 12:40, 41, Galatians 3:16, 17.
From the covenant with Abraham,
given to him when he left Ur,
at the death of Terah, to Exodus
Total 430 years
From Exodus to the building
of the Temple of Salamo in
his 4th year of reign (1Ki 6:1) 480
the division of Israel
36 years later when
Salomo's reign ended 36
Total 516 years
According to Ezekiel 4:1-7
from division of Israel to the
destruction of Jerusalem 390
70 years of exile 70
Total 460 years
History acknowledge this
was in the year 537 BC
Up to year 1 BC 536 years
As no year 0, up to today 2013 years
Grand total 6037 years
Now going backwards:
To day is 2013 AD
commen era began 1 AD
End of exile 537 BC
Building of the Temple 996 BC
Exodus from Egypt 1513 BC
Abraham left Ur 1943 BC
Flood (deluge) 2370 BC
Creation of Adam 4026 BC

The period to the Flood is derived using the genealogical table of the ten patriarchs listed in Genesis 5, and 7:6, termed the generations of Adam. According to the Masoretic Text, this period consists of 1656 years, and this dating is also followed by Western Christian Bibles derived from the Latin Vulgate. According to the Samaritan texts the period is 1307 years, and according to the Septuagint (Codex Alexandrinus, Elizabeth Bible) it is 2262 years.[3]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biblical_chronology
see also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genealogies_of_Genesis
http://www.2001translation.com/Septuagint.htm#_7
http://www.2001translation.com/Genesis.htm

Ancient Mesopotamia - Background Information

The civilization of Ancient Mesopotamia has been inhabited since the dawn of man. The word Mesopotamia comes from Greek origin, meaning the land between two rivers -- the Tigris and the Euphrates. Both the Tigris and the Euphrates start in the mountainous regions of Turkey and flow into the Persian Gulf.
Ancient Mesopotamia- Contributions to Civilizations
The people from Ancient Mesopotamia have contributed much to modern civilization. The first forms of writing came from them in the form of pictographs around 3100 BC. Later that was changed into a form of writing called cuneiform. They also invented the wheel, the plow, and the sailboat. The ancient Mesopotamians were the first people to build and live in cities. They developed the twelve-month calendar and a code of law, which was copied by many civilizations.
In about 3500 BC, an ancient Semitic group of people, called the Sumerians inhabited this land. The Sumerians, or Semites, were descendents of Shem, a son of Noah. After the Sumerian civilization fell, they were followed by the Assyrians, and later by the Babylonians.
By 3000 BC, the first city-state, Uruk, was built with Gilgamesh as its ruler. Soon there were other city-states. Those were Ur, Lagash, Eridu and Kish. Ur was the largest city. Each city-state was ruled by a king and the kings were often at war with one another. (Note that Gilgamesh here is listed after the descenddnts of Shem,
so that the story about the flood already were history - see the quote below).
quote: The Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh, composed about 2500 BC, contains a flood story almost exactly the same as the Noah story in the Pentateuch, with a few variations such as the number of days of the deluge, the order of the birds, and the name of the mountain on which the ark rests. Andrew R. George submits that the flood story in Genesis 6–8 matches the Gilgamesh flood myth so closely, "few doubt" that it derives from a Mesopotamian account. What is particularly noticeable is the way the Genesis flood story follows the Gilgamesh flood tale "point by point and in the same order", even when the story permits other alternatives.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noah - unquote

quote: It is noteworthy that these events later found expression in the legends of ancient civilizations. For example, a 4,000-year-old Babylonian epic describes the superhuman exploits of Gilgamesh,(WTL) unqote
quote: Nimrod has been identified with Merodach, the god of Babylon . . . He has been identified with Gilgamesh, the hero of the epic which contains the Babylonian Deluge story . . . with various historical kings of Babylonia, . . .
source: The Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 19, edition of 1911, page 703. unqote
quote: Gilgamesh (pron.: Akkadian cuneiform: Gilgameš, often given the epithet of the King, also known as Bilgames in the earliest Sumerian texts) was the fifth king of Uruk, modern day Iraq (Early Dynastic II, first dynasty of Uruk), placing his reign ca. 2500 BC.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilgamesh unqote
quote: This first, "Old Babylonian" version of the epic dates to the 18th century BC and is titled Shutur eli sharri ("Surpassing All Other Kings"). Only a few fragments of it survived.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epic_of_Gilgamesh unqote
quote: The Epic of Gilgamesh is, perhaps, the oldest written story on Earth. It comes to us from Ancient Sumeria, and was originally written on 12 clay tablets in cunieform script. It is about the adventures of the historical King of Uruk (somewhere between 2750 and 2500 BCE).
source: http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/mesopotamian/gilgamesh/ unqote
quote The tale revolves around a legendary hero named Gilgamesh (Bilgames in Sumerian), who was said to be the king of the Sumerian city of Uruk. His father is identified as Lugalbanda, king of Uruk, and his mother is the wise cow goddess Ninsun. No contemporary information is known about Gilgamesh, who, if he was in fact an historical person, would have lived around 2700 B.C. Nor is there any preserved early third-millennium version of the poem. During the twenty-first century B.C., Shulgi, ruler of the Sumerian city of Ur, was a patron of the literary arts. He sponsored a revival of older literature and established academies of scholars at his capital Ur and at the holy city of Nippur. Shulgi claimed Lugalbanda as his father and Gilgamesh as his brother. source: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/gilg/hd_gilg.htm unquote
The Gilgamesh story is according to above quotes, dated between 4000 BC and 1800 BC. As stated in the last quotation from 'netmuseum.org' the writer lived about 2.100 BC, about 250 years after the flood, and may well have used the wellknown story about Noah and his sons.
In 2600 BC, King Sargon I of Ur built the first Ziggurat. Ziggurats were tall temples so people could get closer to god. The term Ziggurat means “platform between heaven and earth.” Each city-state had its own deity and priests to tend to it. The Tower of Babel was a ziggurat.
King Sargon I of Akkad ruled in Ur from 2334 to 2279 BC. He was said to have been found floating in a river, in a basket like Moses was. (Check this info) He was known as the first Empire Builder. Through his military prowess, he combined the kingdoms of Sumer with the kingdom of Akkad. He was a builder of Ziggurats.
Quote:
Sargon I or Sharru-ken reigned as king of the old-Assyrian Kingdom from ca. 1920 BC to 1881 BC. The name 'Sargon' means 'the king is legitimate' in Akkadian. [1] He is known for his work refortifying Assur. [2] The name "Sargon I" has also been used to refer to Sargon of Akkad, and the Assyrian Sargon may have been named after him.[3] Very little is known about this king.[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sargon_I
unqote
quote
The Sumerian king list relates: "In Agade [Akkad], Sargon, whose father was a gardener, the cup-bearer of Ur-Zababa, became king, the king of Agade, who built Agade; he ruled for 56 years." There are several problems with this entry in the king list. Thorkild Jacobsen marked the clause about Sargon's father being a gardener as a lacuna, indicating his uncertainty about its meaning.[10] Furthermore, confusingly, Ur-Zababa and Lugal-zage-si are both listed as kings, but several generations apart.[citation needed] The claim that Sargon was the original founder of Akkad has come into question in recent years, with the discovery of an inscription mentioning the place and dated to the first year of Enshakushanna, who almost certainly preceded him.[11] This claim of the king list had been the basis for earlier speculation by a number of scholars that Sargon was an inspiration for the biblical figure of Nimrod.[12] The Weidner Chronicle (ABC 19:51) states that it was Sargon who built Babylon "in front of Akkad."[13][14] The Chronicle of Early Kings (ABC 20:18-19) likewise states that late in his reign, Sargon "dug up the soil of the pit of Babylon, and made a counterpart of Babylon next to Agade."[14][15] Van de Mieroop suggested that those two chronicles may in fact refer to the much later Assyrian king, Sargon II of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, rather than to Sargon of Akkad.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sargon_of_Akkad unqote
Abraham was a city dweller from the city of Ur. In about 2090 BC, (1943 BC) God called Abraham out of that city, to separate him from that evil influence, and to make of him a great nation. Abraham became a wanderer and a nomad in the land of Canaan. He is the father of the Jews. Jesus was born from the lineage of Abraham.
King Hammurabi reigned between 1795 BC and 1750 BC. He was the first king of the Babylonian empire. His capital city was Babylon. He is best known for the Code of Hammurabi, a set of laws, which governed every aspect of civil life.source: http://www.allabouthistory.org/ancient-mesopotamia.htm







Map of Eurasia showing the trade network of the Radhanites, c. 870 CE,
as reported in the account of ibn Khordadbeh in the Book of Roads and Kingdoms


Map of Eurasia and North Africa, c. 870 CE. Trade routes of the Radhanite Jewish merchants are shown in blue.
Other major trade routes shown in purple.
Cities with sizable Jewish communities are shown in brown. Some routes are conjectural.)
(author, I, Max Naylor)
GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Radhanites2.png

The Khazars occupied a prime trade nexus. Goods from western Europe travelled east to Central Asia and China and vice versa, and the Muslim world
could only interact with northern Europe via Khazar intermediaries. The Radhanites, a guild of medieval Jewish merchants, had a trade route that ran
through Khazaria, and may have been instrumental in the Khazars' conversion to Judaism.

No Khazar paid taxes to the central government. Revenue came from a 10% levy on goods transiting through the region, and from tribute paid by subject nations.
The Khazars exported honey, furs, wool, millet and other cereals, fish, and slaves. D.M. Dunlop and Artamanov asserted that the Khazars produced no
material goods themselves, living solely on trade. This theory has been refuted by discoveries over the last half century, which include pottery and glass factories.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khazars

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