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As Hieronymus continued his work, he found certain disagreements between the greek handwritings, disagreements of the same type
as those he found in the latin handwritings. Hieronymus became more and more frustrated. Finally he drew the conclusion that he was to
make a serious translation (Vulgata), he had to put away the greece handwritings, amongst which was the high valueted Septuagint, and go directly
to the hebrew texts. w.99.1.29

Gutenberg wrote his bibel in latin. But soon other european scholars soon understood that they needed a more realiable
bibeltext based on the original languages, hebrew and greek. The Chatolic Church accepted no other bibeltranslation than the
Vulgata, but there were two big problems with this issue. Duriong the 16th century only few people understood latin.
An d during the thousand years since
Vulgata were written, a lot of errors had showed up when copying the text.

Egyptian history

The history of Egypt has been long and rich, due to the flow of the Nile river, with its fertile banks and delta. Its rich history also comes
from its native inhabitants and outside influence. Much of Egypt's ancient history was a mystery until the secrets of ancient Egyptian
hieroglyphs were deciphered with the discovery and help of the Rosetta Stone.

Ancient Egyptian history is a long and complex one with more than 3,000 years of details. Throughout these 3,000 years ancient Egyptians
lived under about 30 dynasties, with each dynasty being based on the lineage of the kings/pharaohs.
Throughout all these years, the country experienced many changes, some being very drastic.

The land began as two (Upper & Lower Egypt), with King Menes uniting the two regions at around 3,500 B.C.E. From this point on,
the pharaohs were referred to as the rulers of the Two Kingdoms. In art and on tombs,the pharaohs were now depicted with the crowns
of Upper and Lower Egypt combined to become one crown, known as the pschent.

The reason for the difference in names refers to the flow of the life-giving Nile River. Being that the Nile flows from East Africas highlands down
to the Mediterranean Sea, Southern Egypt became known as Upper Egypt, and Northern Egypt became known as Lower Egypt.
As these two regions developed independently of each other, the differences between them were evident after the unification of the country,
though customs from both regions were combined.
Source: http://www.touregypt.net/ancientegypt/

3500 BC

3100 BC

2700 BC

2200 BC

2055 BC

1700 BC

1600 BC

1500 BC

1400 BC

1275 BC

1100 BC

664 BC

Early settlers in Nile valley

Hieroglyphic script,
Upper and Lower Egypt unified

First stone pyramd built

Various kings ruled Egypt

Mentuhotep II gained control
of the entire country

Hyksos rulers took control
of Delta region

Ahmose unified the country

Hatshepsut became Pharao

Akhenaten changed religon

Tutankhamun became pharaoh
and traditional religion returned

Ramesses II fought batlle
of Kadesh

Upper and Lower Egypt split

Predynastic Period

Early Dynastic Period
1st and 2nd Dynasty

Old Kingdom
3rd-6th Dynasty

First Intermediate P.
7th-10th Dynasty

Middle Kingdom
11th-12th Dynasty

Second Intermediate
13th-17th Dynasty

New Kingdom
18th-20th Dynasty

The Third
Intermediate Period

Late Period of
Ancient Egypt

Source: http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/time/explore/main.html

see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_pharaohs

Dynasty Dates (*)
The creation of a reliable chronology of Ancient Egypt is a task fraught with problems. While the overwhelming majority of Egyptologists agree on the outline
and many of the details of a common chronology, disagreements either individually or in groups have resulted in a variety of dates offered for rulers and events.
This variation begins with only a few years in the Late Period, gradually growing to three decades at the beginning of the New Kingdom, and eventually
to as much as a three centuries by the start of the Old Kingdom.

The "Conventional Egyptian chronology" is the scholarly consensus, placing the beginning of the Middle Kingdom in the 21st century BC.
During the 20th century AD, scholarly consensus regarding the beginning of the Old Kingdom has shifted to earlier dates and is now placed in the 27th century BC.

Some Egyptian dynasties may have overlapped, with different pharaohs ruling in different regions at the same time, rather than serially.
Not knowing whether monarchies were simultaneous or sequential may lead to widely differing chronological interpretations.

1st Dynasty ±3000 - 2800 BC (3400-2980, 3100-2890 BC)

Menes Meni ~3100-3050
Hor-Aha Teti ttij ~3050-
Djer Iti, Ita iti ~3049-3008
Djet Itui itjwi ~3008-2975
Merneith, mother of Den ~3008
Den Qenti ~2975-2935
Anedjib Merbiapen ~2935-1925
Semerkhet Semsem ~2925-2916
Qa'a (Qe)beh - 2916-2890




2nd Dynasty 2800 - 2650 BC
Hotepsekhemwy Baunetjer
Nebre Kakau
Nynetjer Banetjer
Senedj Sened
Neferkara I Neferka
Neferkasokar Neferkasokar
Khasekhemwy Bebti
Sanakhte Nebka

king Nynetjer, the third ruler of 2nd dynasty
(uncertain; Wadjenes, Senedj or Sekhemib)
Sekhemib-Perenmaat might be same as Seth-Peribsen

Seth-Peribsen (around 2740 B.C. )
Khasekhemwy (Khasekhem?)(2690), king before Djoser
Married to Nimaethap, parents to Djoser (and also Sanakhte?).



3rd Dynasty 2650 - 2575 BC (2980-2900, 2686-2613)
Djoser Djoser
Sekhemkhet Djoserti
Hudjefa II Hudjefa
Huni Huni

Netjerikhet Tosorthros Djoser / Djoser-It
   Reign: 19 or 28 years ca. 2670 BC
   Married to Hetephernebti
   One of three(?) daughters: Inetkawes
Sekhemkhet Tyreis Djoser-Ti / Djoser-Teti
Sanakht Necherôphês (?) Nebka (?)
Huni Huni
2650 - 2631

2631 - 2623
2619 - 2599
2599 - 2575



4th Dynasty 2575-2465 (2900-2750, 2613-2494)
Snofru / Soris
Kheops / Suphis
Djedefre / Ratoises
Khefren / Suphis
Bakare (?) / Bikheris
Mykerinos / Menkheres
Shepseskaf / Seberkheres
Thamphthis (?) / Thamphthis
2575 - 2551
2551 - 2528
2528 - 2518
2518 - 2492
2492 - 2490 (?)
2490 - 2472
2472 - 2467
2467 - 2465



5th Dynasty 2465-2323 (2750-2625, 2494-2345)
Userkaf / Usercherês
Sahure / Sephrês
Neferirkare / Nephercherês
Shepseskare / Sisirês
Neferefre / Cherês
Niuserre / Rathurês
Menkauhor / Mencherês
Djedkare / Tancherês
Unas / Onnus
2465 - 2458
2458 - 2446
2446 - 2426
2426 - 2419 (?)
2419 - 2416
2416 - 2392
2392 - 2388
2388 - 2356
2356 - 2323



6th Dynasty (2623-2475, 2345-2181)
Teti / Othoês
Pepi I / Phiôps
Merenre I / Methuspuphis
Pepi II / Phiôps
Merenre II / Menthesuphis
Nitocris / Nitokris
2323 - 2291
2291 - 2289
2289 - 2255
2255 - 2246
2246 - 2152


Also known by the Greek name Nitocris, this woman is believed by some authorities to have been not only the first female pharaoh but the first queen
in the world, although it is currently accepted that her name is actually a mistranslation of the king Neitiqerty Siptah.


Phiops is supposed to begin his reign only 6 years old, and lasted till his 100th.

p3 Book I
Fr. 1 (from the Armenian Version of Eusebius, Chronica).
Dynasties of Gods, Demigods, and Spirits of the Dead.
From the Egyptian History of Manetho, who composed his account in three books. These deal with the Gods, the Demigods, the Spirits of the Dead, and the mortal kings who ruled Egypt down to Darius, king of the Persians.

1. The first man (or god) in Egypt is Hephaestus,1 who is also renowned among the Egyptians as the discoverer of fire. His son, Helios (the Sun), was succeeded by Sôsis; then follow, in turn, Cronos, p5Osiris, Typhon, brother of Osiris, and lastly Orus, son of Osiris and Isis. These were the first to hold sway in Egypt. Thereafter, the kingship passed from one to another in unbroken succession down to Bydis (Bites)2 through 13,900 years. The year I take, however, to be a lunar one, consisting, that is, of 30 days: what we now call a month the Egyptians used formerly to style a year.3

2. After the Gods, Demigods reigned for 1255 years,4 and again another line of kings held sway for 1817 years: then came thirty more kings of Memphis,5 reigning for 1790 years; and then again ten kings of This, reigning for 350 years.

3. There followed the rule of Spirits of the Dead and Demigods,6 for 5813 years.

4. The total [of the last five groups] amounts to 11,000 years,7 these however being lunar periods, or p7months. But, in truth, the whole rule of which the Egyptians tell — the rule of Gods, Demigods, and Spirits of the Dead — is reckoned to have comprised in all 24,900 lunar years, which make 22068 solar years.

5. Now, if you care to compare these figures with Hebrew chronology, you will find that they are in perfect harmony. Egypt is called Mestraïm9 by the Hebrews; and Mestraïm lived <not> long after the Flood. For after the Flood, Cham (or Ham), son of Noah, begat Aegyptus or Mestraïm, who was the first to set out to establish himself in Egypt, at the time when the tribes began to disperse this way and that. Now the whole time from Adam to the Flood was, according to the Hebrews, 2242 years.

6. But, since the Egyptians claim by a sort of prerogative of antiquity that they have, before the Flood, a line of Gods, Demigods, and Spirits of the Dead, who reigned for more than 20,000 years, it clearly follows that these years should be reckoned p9as the same number of months as the years recorded by the Hebrews: that is, that all the months contained in the Hebrew record of years, should be reckoned as so many lunar years of the Egyptian calculation, in accordance with the total length of time reckoned from the creation of man in the beginning down to Mestraïm. Mestraïm was indeed the founder of the Egyptian race; and from him the first Egyptian dynasty must be held to spring.

7. But if the number of years is still in excess, it must be supposed that perhaps several Egyptian kings ruled at one and the same time; for they say that the rulers were kings of This, of Memphis, of Saïs, of Ethiopia, and of other places at the same time. It seems, moreover, that different kings held sway in different regions, and that each dynasty was confined to its own nome: thus it was not a succession of kings occupying the throne one after the other, but several kings reigning at the same time in different regions.10 Hence arose the great total number of years. But let us leave this question and take up in detail the chronology of Egyptian history


Fr. 418 (from Excerpta Latina Barbari)
In the kingdom of Egypt we have the oldest of all kingdoms, and we are minded to record its beginning, as it is given by Manetho. First, I shall put down as follows the reigns of the Gods, as recorded by the Egyptians. Some say that the god Hêphaestus reigned in Egypt for 680 years; after him, Sol [Hêlios, the Sun], son of Hêphaestus, for 77years: next, Sosinosiris [Sôsis and Osiris], for 320 years: then Orus the Ruler, for 28 years; and after him, Typhon, for 45 years. Total for the reigns of the Gods, 1550 years.

Next come the reigns of the Demigods, as follows first, Anubes for 83 years; then after him, Amusis, some say, was king. About him, Apiôn the grammarian, who composed a history of Egypt, explained that he lived in the time of Inachus who was king at the founding of Argos . . . for 67 years.

p21 I. Thereafter he [Manetho] gave an account of the kings who were Spirits of the Dead, calling them also Demigods, . . . who reigned for 2100 years: he called them "very brave" (Heroes).

II. Mineus and seven of his descendants reigned for 253 years.24
III. Bochus and eight other kings reigned for 302 years.
IV. Necherocheus and seven other kings for 214 years.
V. Similarly seventeen other kings for 277 years.
VI. Similarly twenty-one other kings for 258 years.
VII. Othoi and seven other kings for 203 years.
VIII. Similarly fourteen other kings for 140 years.
IX. Similarly twenty other kings for 409 years.
X. Similarly seven other kings for 204 years.

Here ends the First Book of Manetho, which contains a period of 2100 years.

XI. A dynasty of kings of Diospolis (Thebes), for 60 years.
XII. A dynasty of kings of Bubastus, for 153 years.
p23 XIII. A dynasty of kings of Tanis, for 184 years.
XIV. A dynasty of kings of Sebennytus, for 224 years.
XV. A dynasty of kings of Memphis, for 318 years.
XVI. A dynasty of kings of Hêliopolis, for 221 years.
XVII. A dynasty of kings of Hermupolis, for 260 years.

The Second Book continues the record down to the Seventeenth Dynasty, and comprises 1520 years. These are the Egyptian dynasties.
Source: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Manetho/History_of_Egypt/1*.html

First Intermediate Period (c. 2181-2055 B.C.)

7th Dynasty 2150-2130 (at least 17 kings)

This person is possibly Nitocris, and if so would belong in the sixth dynasty
Neferkare II
Nebi / Neferkare Neby
Djedkare Shemai
Neferkare Khendu
Seneferka / Neferkamin
Neferkare Tereru



8th Dynasty 2150-2130

Neferkare VII
Kheti, son of Neferkare


Neferkare Pepiseneb
Neferkare Pepiseneb may have been an eighth dynasty king of ancient Egypt during the First Intermediate Period. His name is attested on the Abydos King List,
and he is the first king since ntyiqrt (who may be either Nitocris or Netjerkare) to appear on the Turin Canon of Kings, which gives him the epithet, Shery,
or The Younger. It is because of this strange absence that some Egyptologists consider him the first king of the Eighth Dynasty, whereas the Turin Canon
omitted the seventh, but this is speculation without hard evidence.

Neferkamin Anu
Iby / Qakare Ibi
Neferkaure II
Khwiwihepu / Neferkauhor
Turin Canon gives rule from 1 to 4 years for these kings...



Comments to the Seventh and Eighth Dynasties


The three sources that provide our knowledge on this period is exceedingly difficult to work with. Manetho's full history does not survive intact, but is known through other writers who quoted from it. Unfortunately, the two ancient historians who quote from this section, Sextus Julius Africanus and Eusebius of Caesarea, provide inconsistent accounts of both dynasties. Africanus claims that Dynasty VII consisted of 70 kings that ruled during a period of seventy days in Memphis, and Dynasty VIII consisted of 27 kings who reigned for 146 years. However, Eusebius records that during Dynasty VII five kings ruled over seventy five days, and Dynasty VIII includes five kings who ruled for 100 years. Seventy kings in seventy days is usually considered the correct version of Manetho, but obviously not the actual correct dates. This epithet is interpreted to mean that the pharaohs of this period were extremely ephemeral (short periods), and the use of seventy may be a pun on fact that this was Manetho's seventh dynasty. Because Manetho does not provide actual historical data on this period, many argue that the seventh dynasty is fictitious.

The Turin Canon of Kings and Abydos King List

Two Egyptian documents record the names of the kings of Egypt, but they do not divide them into dynasties. Kings 42 to 56 on the Abydos King List come between the end of Dynasty VI and the beginning of Dynasty XI, and do not appear to be from Dynasty IX or X either. The Turin Canon is heavily damaged, and cannot be read without much difficulty. However, the fragment containing what is believed to be the name of Nitocris has two mangled names and a third name on it which is clearly that of Qakare Ibi, the fifty-third king on the Abydos King List. There seems to be room for two more kings before the end of the dynasty. This would indicate that the missing parts of the Turin Papyrus probably contained the kings in the fifty-first to fifty-fifth registers of the Abydos King List. Because
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh_and_Eighth_Dynasties_of_Egypt

9th Dynasty 2134-2040 (2160 to 2025 BC.)

Wakhare Khety I
Neferkare III
Wankhare Khety II
According to Africanus 19 Heracleotic Kings reigned for 409 years
1. Achthoës
Eusebius claims 4 Heracleotic Kings for 100 years.
1. Achtos

(Neferkare III, sometimes numbered VII, VIII, or IX, was the third pharaoh of the ninth dynasty of ancient Egypt, ca. 2140 BCE (during the First Intermediary Period), according to the Turin King List, where his name, Neferkare, is inscribed in the register 4.20.

Neferkare is not included on the Abydos King List or the Saqqara King List, nor can the existence of his reign be positively confirmed through archaeological finds.

This otherwise unattested ruler of Herakleopolis Magna has been controversially identified by various scholars with a king named Ka-nefer-re, who is mentioned in an obscure and isolated tomb inscription of Ankhtifi, nomarch of Hieraconopolis and prince of Moala, about 30 km (19 mi) south of Thebes. Ankhtifi led a coalition of his nome and Edfu against Thebes.)

10th Dynasty 2134-2040 (2160 to 2025 BC.)
Africanus and Eusebius claimed 19 Heracleotic Kings who reigned 185 years

Akhtoy Meryibtowe
Akhtoy Wahkare
Akhtoy Nebkaure

11th Dynasty 2134-1991
Both Africanus and Eusebius claimed 16 Deospolite Kings who reigned 43 years
Last one was Ammenemes who reigned in 16 years.

12th Dynasty 1991-1783


13th Dynasty 1783-After 1640 (1802-~1649 BC, 153 years)

14th Dynasty 1785 - After 1640
more than 30 kings known, more names lost.

Second Intermediate Period.

15th Dynasty After 1640-1522 (1650-1550)
Hyksos Kings

Khiyan / Iannas
Ipepi / Apophis
Khamudi / Aseth

ca. 1615 - 1575
ca. 1575 - 1532
1532 - 1522

The Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt was the first Hyksos dynasty, ruled from Avaris, without control of the entire land. The Hyksos preferred to stay in
northern Egypt since they infiltrated from the north-east. The names and order of kings is uncertain. The Turin King list indicates that there were six
Hyksos kings, with an obscure Khamudi listed as the final king of the Fifteenth Dynasty.[2] (line X.21 of the cited web link clearly provides this summary
for the dynasty: "6 kings functioning 100+X years.") The surviving traces on the X figure appears to give the figure 8 which suggests that the summation
should be read as 6 kings ruling 108 years.

Number of kings named Apepi

Some scholars argue there were two Apophis kings named Apepi I and Apepi II, but this is primarily due to the fact there are two known prenomens
for this king: Awoserre and Aqenenre. However, the Danish Egyptologist Kim Ryholt maintains in his study of the Second Intermediate Period that these
prenomens all refer to one man: Apepi I who ruled Egypt for 40+X years.[3] This is also supported by the fact that this king employed a third prenomen
during his reign: Nebkhepeshre.[4] Apophis likely employed several different prenomens throughout various periods of his reign. This scenario is not
unprecedented since later kings including the famous Ramesses II and Seti II are known to have used two different prenomens in their own reign.

16th Dynasty 1650-1550 BC

Of the two chief versions of Manetho's Aegyptiaca, Dynasty XVI is described by the more reliableAfricanus (supported by Syncellus)
as "shepherd [hyksos] kings", but by Eusebius as Theban.
Ryholt (1997), followed by Bourriau (2003), in reconstructing the Turin canon, interpreted a list of Thebes-based kings to constitute Manetho's Dynasty XVI,
although this is one of Ryholt's "most debatable and far-reaching" conclusions.[4] For this reason other scholars do not follow Ryholt and see only insufficient
evidence for the interpretation of the Sixteenth Dynasty as Theban.[6]

Ryholt gives the list of Dynasty XVI kings as shown in the table below.[7] Others, such as Helck, Vandersleyen, Bennett and others combine
some of these rulers with the Seventeenth dynasty of Egypt. The estimated dates come from Bennett's publication.
Wolfgang Helck however gives a different list of rulers for the 16th dynasty:[10] .


The continuing war against Dynasty XV dominated the short-lived Dynasty XVI. The armies of Dynasty XV, winning town after town from their
southern enemies, continually encroached on Dynasty XVI, eventually threatening and then conquering Thebes itself. Ryholt (1997) has suggested
that Dedumose I sued for a truce in the latter years of the dynasty,[3] but one of his predecessors, Nebiryraw I, may have been more successful
and seems to have enjoyed a period of peace in his reign.

Famine, which had plagued Upper Egypt during late Dynasty XIII and Dynasty XIV, also blighted Dynasty XVI, most evidently in the reign of Neferhotep III.

17th Dynasty 1580-1550 BC

Kamose, the second son of Seqenenre Tao, was the brother of Ahmose I--the first king of the Eighteenth Dynasty

New Kingdom

18th Dynasty 1550–c. 1292 BC (Thutmosid Dynasty ) (1659-1350) (1678-
Radiocarbon dating suggests that Dynasty XVIII may have started a few years earlier than the conventional date of 1550 BC.
The radiocarbon date range for its beginning is 1570–1544 BC, the mean point of which is 1557 BC.[

Dynasty XVIII was founded by Ahmose I the brother or son of Kamose, the last ruler of the Dynasty XVII. Ahmose finished the campaign
to expel the Hyksos rulers.His reign is seen as the end of the Second Intermediate Period and the start of New Kingdom.

See date of the Exode around pages 70-80 at the end of the book:

19th Dynasty 1292-1187 BC (1351-1147)

20th Dynasty 1187-1064 BC (1147-1012)

Third Intermediate Period.
21st Dynasty 1077-943 BC

22nd Dynasty 943-716 BC

Psusennes II
Shishak / Sheshonk (Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I), reign 943-922 BC
Shishak invaded Judah with a mighty force of chariots and horsemen. (993 B.C.E.) (Bible)
Smendes, Smedes, Soussakain, 1012-986, same as Shishak.. who is said to have invaded Judah in 985.?

Osorkon I, Iuput A, Nimlot B

father-in-law of Psusennes' daughter Maatkare
Shoshenq I was the son of Nimlot A and Tentsepeh A
His paternal grandparents were the Chief of the MA Shoshenk (A) and his wife Mehytenweskhet A.

Osorkon I

The kings of the Twenty-Second Dynasty of Egypt were a series of Meshwesh Libyans who ruled from c. 943 BC until 720 BC. They had settled in Egypt since
the Twentieth Dynasty. Manetho states that the dynasty originated at Bubastis, but the kings almost certainly ruled from Tanis, which was their capital and
the city where their tombs have been excavated.

Another king who belongs to this group is Tutkheperre Shoshenq, whose precise position within this dynasty is currently uncertain although he is now thought
to have ruled Egypt early in the 9th century BC for a short time. The so-called Twenty-Third Dynasty was an offshoot of this dynasty perhaps based in
Upper Egypt, though there is much debate concerning this issue. All of its kings reigned in Middle and Upper Egypt including the Western Desert Oases.
The next ruler at Tanis after Shoshenq V was Osorkon IV but this king is not believed to be a member of the 22nd Dynasty since he only controlled a small
portion of Lower Egypt together with Tefnakhte of Sais—whose authority was recognised at Memphis—and Iuput II of Leontopolis.

Source: http://www.ancient-egypt.org


Egyptologists, archaeologists and scholars from the 19th century
have proposed different dates for the era of Menes, or the date of the first dynasty:

Jean-François Champollion (1840) – 5867 BC
August Böckh (1845) – 5702 BC
Auguste Mariette (1871) – 5004 BC
Flinders Petrie (1887) – 4777 BC
Heinrich Karl Brugsch (1859) – 4455 BC
Franz Joseph Lauth (1869) – 4157 BC
Karl Richard Lepsius (1856) – 3892 BC
Christian Charles Josias Bunsen (1848) – 3623 BC
Reginald Stuart Poole (1851) – 2717 BC
James Strong (1878) – 2515 BC
John Gardner Wilkinson (1835) – 2320 BC

Modern consensus dates the era of Menes or the start of the first dynasty between c. 3100–3050 BC; some academic literature uses c. 3000 BC.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menes

Predynastic Period (c. 5000-3100 B.C.)

Few written records or artifacts have been found from the Predynastic Period, which encompassed at least 2,000 years of gradual development of the Egyptian civilization.

Neolithic (late Stone Age) communities in northeastern Africa exchanged hunting for agriculture and made early advances that paved the way for the later development of Egyptian arts and crafts, technology, politics and religion (including a great reverence for the dead and possibly a belief in life after death).

Around 3400 B.C., two separate kingdoms were established: the Red Land to the north, based in the Nile River Delta and extending along the Nile perhaps to Atfih; and the White Land in the south, stretching from Atfih to Gebel es-Silsila. A southern king, Scorpion, made the first attempts to conquer the northern kingdom around 3200 B.C. A century later, King Menes would subdue the north and unify the country, becoming the first king of the first dynasty
Source: http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-egypt

There is evidence of rock carvings along the Nile terraces and in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BC, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture. Climate changes and/or overgrazing around 8000 BC began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralized society.

By about 6000 BC, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt. The Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are generally regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, Merimda, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade. The earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BC.


Archaic (Early Dynastic) Period (c. 3100-2686 B.C.)

King Menes founded the capital of ancient Egypt at White Walls (later known as Memphis), in the north, near the apex of the Nile River delta. The capital would grow into a great metropolis that dominated Egyptian society during the Old Kingdom period. The Archaic Period saw the development of the foundations of Egyptian society, including the all-important ideology of kingship. To the ancient Egyptians, the king was a godlike being, closely identified with the all-powerful god Horus. The earliest known hieroglyphic writing also dates to this period.

In the Archaic Period, as in all other periods, most ancient Egyptians were farmers living in small villages, and agriculture (largely wheat and barley) formed the economic base of the Egyptian state. The annual flooding of the great Nile River provided the necessary irrigation and fertilization each year; farmers sowed the wheat after the flooding receded and harvested it before the season of high temperatures and drought returned.
Source: http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-egypt

A unified kingdom was founded c. 3150 BC by King Menes, leading to a series of dynasties that ruled Egypt for the next three millennia. Egyptian culture flourished during this long period and remained distinctively Egyptian in its religion, arts, language and customs.

Old Kingdom: Age of the Pyramid Builders (c. 2686-2181 B.C.2160 BC) [2686-2160 BC]
During the 20th century AD, scholarly consensus regarding the beginning of the Old Kingdom has shifted to earlier dates
and is now placed in the 27th century BC.

The Old Kingdom began with the third dynasty of pharaohs. Around 2630 B.C., the third dynasty's King Djoser asked Imhotep, an architect, priest and healer, to design a funerary monument for him; the result was the world's first major stone building, the Step-Pyramid at Saqqara, near Memphis. Pyramid-building reached its zenith with the construction of the Great Pyramid at Giza, on the outskirts of Cairo. Built for Khufu (or Cheops, in Greek), who ruled from 2589 to 2566 B.C., the pyramid was later named by classical historians as one of the ancient world's Seven Wonders. Two other pyramids were built at Giza for Khufu's successors Khafra (2558-2532 B.C) and Menkaura (2532-2503 B.C.).

During the third and fourth dynasties, Egypt enjoyed a golden age of peace and prosperity. The pharaohs held absolute power and provided a stable central government; the kingdom faced no serious threats from abroad; and successful military campaigns in foreign countries like Nubia and Libya added to its considerable economic prosperity. Over the course of the fifth and sixth dynasties, the king's wealth was steadily depleted, partially due to the huge expense of pyramid-building, and his absolute power faltered in the face of the growing influence of the nobility and the priesthood that grew up around the sun god Ra (Re). After the death of the sixth dynasty's King Pepy II, who ruled for some 94 years, the Old Kingdom period ended in chaos.
Source: http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-egypt

The first two ruling dynasties of a unified Egypt set the stage for the Old Kingdom period, c. 2700–2200 BC., which constructed many pyramids, most notably the Third Dynasty pyramid of Djoser and the Fourth Dynasty Giza Pyramids.

There was no history writing during the Old Kingdom but there were annals, brief records of important events. These are only incompletely preserved. We also have lists of kings, although they date from later periods, mostly from the New Kingdom, which started about a thousand years after the Old Kingdom ended. The most important among the annals is the so-called Royal Canon of Turin, copied in about 1250 BC. In the third century BC, Manetho, a priest from the town of Sebennytos (Samannud) in the Nile delta, wrote a history of Egypt based on ancient records. Unfortunately, his work has survived only in brief excerpts.

The Egyptians counted the years of each king's reign, but began again when a new king came to the throne. There are no astronomical dates known from the Old Kingdom, which could have provided us with fixed chronological points. The only way of establishing exactly when each king ruled is by adding up the lengths of the reigns known from the lists of kings (but these are not complete) or from the dates that survive on contemporary monuments (although we cannot be sure that the last year of the reign is recorded).

Modern scientific techniques, especially radiocarbon dating (based on the changes in the radioactive isotope C14), are helpful, but the margin of error is still too large. Other methods, e.g. that based on astronomical observations reflected in the building of pyramids, have the potential to be useful, but more work is needed before they can be used with confidence.
Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/primary_sources_01.shtml


First Intermediate Period (c. 2181-2055 B.C.)

On the heels of the Old Kingdom's collapse, the seventh and eighth dynasties consisted of a rapid succession of Memphis-based rulers until about 2160 B.C., when the central authority completely dissolved, leading to civil war between provincial governors. This chaotic situation was intensified by Bedouin invasions and accompanied by famine and disease.

From this era of conflict emerged two different kingdoms: A line of 17 rulers (dynasties nine and 10) based in Heracleopolis ruled Middle Egypt between Memphis and Thebes, while another family of rulers arose in Thebes to challenge Heracleopolitan power. Around 2055 B.C., the Theban prince Mentuhotep managed to topple Heracleopolis and reunited Egypt, beginning the 11th dynasty and ending the First Intermediate Period.
Source: http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-egypt

The First Intermediate Period ushered in a time of political upheaval for about 150 years.


Middle Kingdom: 12th Dynasty (c. 2055-1786 B.C.)

After the last ruler of the 11th dynasty, Mentuhotep IV, was assassinated, the throne passed to his vizier, or chief minister, who became King Amenemhet I, founder of dynasty 12. A new capital was established at It-towy, south of Memphis, while Thebes remained a great religious center. During the Middle Kingdom, Egypt once again flourished, as it had during the Old Kingdom. The 12th dynasty kings ensured the smooth succession of their line by making each successor co-regent, a custom that began with Amenemhet I.

Middle-Kingdom Egypt pursued an aggressive foreign policy, colonizing Nubia (with its rich supply of gold, ebony, ivory and other resources) and repelling the Bedouins who had infiltrated Egypt during the First Intermediate Period. The kingdom also built diplomatic and trade relations with Syria, Palestine and other countries; undertook building projects including military fortresses and mining quarries; and returned to pyramid-building in the tradition of the Old Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom reached its peak under Amenemhet III (1842-1797 B.C.); its decline began under Amenenhet IV (1798-1790 B.C.) and continued under his sister and regent, Queen Sobekneferu (1789-1786 B.C.), who was the first confirmed female ruler of Egypt and the last ruler of the 12th dynasty.
Source: http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-egypt

Stronger Nile floods and stabilization of government, however, brought back renewed prosperity for the country in the Middle Kingdom c. 2040 BC, reaching a peak during the reign of Pharaoh Amenemhat III. A second period of disunity heralded the arrival of the first foreign ruling dynasty in Egypt, that of the Semitic Hyksos. The Hyksos invaders took over much of Lower Egypt around 1650 BC and founded a new capital at Avaris. They were driven out by an Upper Egyptian force led by Ahmose I, who founded the Eighteenth Dynasty and relocated the capital from Memphis to Thebes.

A second period of disunity heralded the arrival of the first foreign ruling dynasty in Egypt, that of the Semitic Hyksos. The Hyksos invaders took over much of Lower Egypt around 1650 BC and founded a new capital at Avaris. They were driven out by an Upper Egyptian force led by Ahmose I, who founded the Eighteenth Dynasty and relocated the capital from Memphis to Thebes.

The New Kingdom c. 1550–1070 BC began with the Eighteenth Dynasty, marking the rise of Egypt as an international power that expanded during its greatest extension to an empire as far south as Tombos in Nubia, and included parts of the Levant in the east. This period is noted for some of the most well known Pharaohs, including Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti, Tutankhamun and Ramesses II. The first historically attested expression of monotheism came during this period as Atenism. Frequent contacts with other nations brought new ideas to the New Kingdom. The country was later invaded and conquered by Libyans, Nubians and Assyrians, but native Egyptians eventually drove them out and regained control of their country.

The Thirtieth Dynasty was the last native ruling dynasty during the Pharaonic epoch. It fell to the Persians in 343 BC after the last native Pharaoh, King Nectanebo II, was defeated in battle.

Second Intermediate Period (c. 1786-1567 B.C.)

The 13th dynasty marked the beginning of another unsettled period in Egyptian history, during which a rapid succession of kings failed to consolidate power. As a consequence, during the Second Intermediate Period Egypt was divided into several spheres of influence. The official royal court and seat of government was relocated to Thebes, while a rival dynasty (the 14th), centered on the city of Xois in the Nile delta, seems to have existed at the same time as the 13th.

Around 1650 B.C., a line of foreign rulers known as the Hyksos took advantage of Egypt's instability to take control. The Hyksos rulers of the 15th dynasty adopted and continued many of the existing Egyptian traditions in government as well as culture. They ruled concurrently with the line of native Theban rulers of the 17th dynasty, who retained control over most of southern Egypt despite having to pay taxes to the Hyksos. (The 16th dynasty is variously believed to be Theban or Hyksos rulers.) Conflict eventually flared between the two groups, and the Thebans launched a war against the Hyksos around 1570 B.C., driving them out of Egypt.
Source: http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-egypt/page2#a5

Who where they - the Hyksos?
As to a Hyksos “conquest”, some archaeologists[who?] depict the Hyksos as “northern hordes . . . sweeping through Canaan and Egypt in swift chariots”. Yet, others refer to a ‘creeping conquest’, that is, a gradual infiltration of migrating nomads or seminomads who either slowly took over control of the country piecemeal or by a swift coup d’etat put themselves at the head of the existing government. In The World of the Past (1963, p. 444), archeologist Jacquetta Hawkes states: “It is no longer thought that the Hyksos rulers... represent the invasion of a conquering horde of Asiatics... they were wandering groups of Semites who had long come to Egypt for trade and other peaceful purposes.”
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyksos

Who where they - the Hyksos II ?
In his Against Apion, the 1st-century AD historian Josephus Flavius debates the synchronism between the Biblical account of the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt, and two Exodus-like events that the Egyptian historian Manetho apparently mentions. It is difficult to distinguish between what Manetho himself recounted, and how Josephus or Apion interpret him. Josephus identifies the Israelite Exodus with the first exodus mentioned by Manetho, when some 480,000 Hyksos "shepherd kings" (also referred to as just 'shepherds', as 'kings' and as 'captive shepherds' in his discussion of Manetho) left Egypt for Jerusalem. The mention of "Hyksos" identifies this first exodus with the Hyksos period (16th century BC).

Josephus records the earliest account of the false but understandable etymology that the Greek phrase Hyksos stood for the Egyptian phrase Hekw Shasu meaning the Bedouin-like Shepherd Kings, which scholars have only recently shown means "rulers of foreign lands."
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyksos

The name Hyksos was used by the Egyptian historian Manetho (ca. 300 BCE), who, according to the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus (1st century CE), translated the word as “king-shepherds” or “captive shepherds.”
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Origins_of_the_Hyksos

Was there a Hyksos invasion?

Manetho's account, as recorded by Josephus, describes the appearance of the Hyksos in Egypt as an armed invasion by a horde of foreign barbarians who met little resistance, and who subdued the country by military force. He records that the Hyksos burnt their cities, destroyed temples, and led women and children into slavery.

It has been claimed that new revolutionary methods of warfare ensured the Hyksos the ascendancy in their influx into the new emporia being established in Egypt's delta and at Thebes in support of the Red Sea trade. Herbert E. Winlock describes new military hardware, such as the composite bow, as well as the improved recurve bow, and most importantly the horse-drawn war chariot, as well as improved arrowheads, various kinds of swords and daggers, a new type of shield, mailed shirts, and the metal helmet.

In recent years the idea of a simple Hyksos migration, with little or no violence, has gained support. According to this theory, the Egyptian rulers of 13th Dynasty were preoccupied with domestic famine and plague, and they were too weak to stop the new migrants from entering and settling in Egypt. Even before the migration, Amenemhat III carried out extensive building works and mining, and Gae Callender notes that "the large intake of Asiatics, which seems to have occurred partly in order to subsidize the extensive building work, may have encouraged the so-called Hyksos to settle in the Delta, thus leading eventually to the collapse of native Egyptian rule."

By around 1700 BC (just over a hundred years later), Egypt was fragmenting politically with local kingdoms springing up in the northeastern Delta area. One of these was that of King Nehesy, whose capital was at Avaris; he ruled over a population consisting largely of Syro-Canaanites who had settled in the area during the 12th Dynasty, and who were probably mainly soldiers, sailors, shipbuilders and workmen. His dynasty was probably replaced by a West-Semitic speaking Syro-Canaanite dynasty that formed the basis of the later Hyksos kingdom, able to spread southwards because of the unstable political situation while aided by "an army, ships, and foreign connections."
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyksos

see also "J o s e p h, Egypt AND The Hyksos"
at http://www.freemaninstitute.com/Gallery/joseph.htm

Since Joseph’s elevation to power and the benefits it brought Israel were by divine providence, there is no need to seek some other reason in the form of friendly “Shepherd Kings.” (Ge 45:7-9) But it is possible that Manetho’s account, actually the foundation of the “Hyksos” idea, simply represents a garbled tradition, one that developed from earlier Egyptian efforts to explain away what took place in their land during the Israelite sojourn in Egypt. The tremendous effect on the country produced by Joseph’s ascension to the position of acting ruler (Ge 41:39-46; 45:26); the profound change his administration brought, resulting in the Egyptians’ sale of their land and even of themselves to Pharaoh (Ge 47:13-20); the 20-percent tax they thereafter paid from their produce (Ge 47:21-26); the 215 years of Israelite residence in Goshen, with their eventually exceeding the native population in number and strength, according to Pharaoh’s statement (Ex 1:7-10, 12, 20); the Ten Plagues and the devastation they wrought not only on the Egyptian economy but even more so on their religious beliefs and the prestige of their priesthood (Ex 10:7; 11:1-3; 12:12, 13); the Exodus of Israel following the death of all Egypt’s firstborn and then the destruction of the cream of Egypt’s military forces at the Red Sea (Ex 12:2-38; 14:1-28)—all these things certainly would require some attempted explanation by the Egyptian official element.

It should never be forgotten that the recording of history in Egypt, as in many Middle Eastern lands, was inseparably connected with the priesthood, under whose tutelage the scribes were trained. It would be most unusual if some propagandistic explanation were not invented to account for the utter failure of the Egyptian gods to prevent the disaster Jehovah God brought upon Egypt and its people. History, even recent history, records many occasions when such propaganda so grossly perverted the facts that the oppressed were presented as the oppressors, and the innocent victims were presented as the dangerous and cruel aggressors. Manetho’s account (over a thousand years after the Exodus), if preserved with some degree of correctness by Josephus, may possibly represent the distorted traditions handed down by succeeding generations of Egyptians to account for the basic elements of p. 696the true account, in the Bible, concerning Israel in Egypt.—
Source http://wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/1200001265?q=hyksos&p=par

New Kingdom (c. 1567-1085 B.C.)

Under Ahmose I, the first king of the 18th dynasty, Egypt was once again reunited. During the 18th dynasty, Egypt restored its control over Nubia and began military campaigns in Palestine, clashing with other powers in the area such as the Mitannians and the Hittites. The country went on to establish the world's first great empire, stretching from Nubia to the Euphrates River in Asia. In addition to powerful kings such as Amenhotep I (1546-1526 B.C.), Thutmose I (1525-1512 B.C.) and Amenhotep III (1417-1379 B.C.), the New Kingdom was notable for the role of royal women such as Queen Hatshepsut (1503-1482 B.C.), who began ruling as a regent for her young stepson (he later became Thutmose III, Egypt's greatest military hero), but rose to wield all the powers of a pharaoh.

The controversial Amenhotep IV (c. 1379-1362), of the late 18th dynasty, undertook a religious revolution, disbanding the priesthoods dedicated to Amon-Re (a combination of the local Theban god Amon and the sun god Re) and forcing the exclusive worship of another sun-god, Aton. Renaming himself Akhenaton ("servant of the Aton"), he built a new capital in Middle Egypt called Akhetaton, known later as Amarna. Upon Akhenaton's death, the capital returned to Thebes and Egyptians returned to worshiping a multitude of gods. The 19th and 20th dynasties, known as the Ramesside period (for the line of kings named Ramses) saw the restoration of the weakened Egyptian empire and an impressive amount of building, including great temples and cities. According to biblical chronology, the Exodus of Moses and the Israelites from Egypt possibly occurred during the reign of Ramses II (1304-1237 B.C.).

All of the New Kingdom rulers (with the exception of Akhenaton) were laid to rest in deep, rock-cut tombs (not pyramids) in the Valley of the Kings, a burial site on the west bank of the Nile opposite Thebes. Most of them were raided and destroyed, with the exception of the tomb and treasure of Tutankhamen (c.1361-1352 B.C.), discovered largely intact in A.D. 1922. The splendid mortuary temple of the last great king of the 20th dynasty, Ramses III (c. 1187-1156 B.C.), was also relatively well preserved, and indicated the prosperity Egypt still enjoyed during his reign. The kings who followed Ramses III were less successful: Egypt lost its provinces in Palestine and Syria for good and suffered from foreign invasions (notably by the Libyans), while its wealth was being steadily but inevitably depleted.
Source: http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-egypt/page2#a5


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