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Duer - Doves



Pigeons and doves constitute the bird family Columbidae within the order Columbiformes, which include some 300 species of near passerines.
In general terms "dove" and "pigeon" are used somewhat interchangeably. In ornithological practice, there is a tendency for "dove" to be used for smaller species and "pigeon" for larger ones, but this is in no way consistently applied, and historically the common names for these birds involve
a great deal of variation between the terms "dove" and "pigeon." This family occurs worldwide, but the greatest variety is in the Indomalaya and Australasia ecozones. Young doves and pigeons are called "squabs."

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks, and have short slender bills with a fleshy cere.

Doves and pigeons build relatively flimsy nests from sticks and other debris, which may be placed in trees, on ledges or on the ground,
depending on species. They lay one or two eggs, and both parents care for the young, which leave the nest after 7 to 28 days.
Doves feed on seeds, fruit and plants. Unlike most other birds (but see flamingo), the doves and pigeons produce "crop milk",
which is secreted by a sloughing of fluid-filled cells from the lining of the crop.
Both sexes produce this highly nutritious substance to feed to the young.

Pigeons and doves exhibit considerable variations in size. The largest species are the crowned pigeons of New Guinea, which are nearly turkey-sized, at a weight of 2-4 kilograms (4.4-8.8 lbs.) The smallest are the New World ground-doves of the genus Columbina, which are the same size as a
House Sparrow and weigh as little as 22 grams. With a total length of more than 50 centimeters (19 in) and weight of almost a kilo (2 lb),
the largest arboreal species is the Marquesan Imperial Pigeon, while the Dwarf Fruit Dove, which may measure as little as 13 centimeters (5.1 in),
has a marginally smaller total length than any other species from this family.

The large bird genus Columba comprises a group of medium to large stout-bodied pigeons, often referred to as the typical pigeons.
The terms "dove" and "pigeon" are used indiscriminately for smaller and larger Columbidae, respectively. Columba species – at least those
of Columba sensu stricto – are generally termed "pigeons", and in many cases wood-pigeons. The species commonly referred to just as
"the pigeon" is the Feral Pigeon (C. livia domestica). It is derived from the Rock Pigeon (C. livia), which also has given rise to the majority of
domesticated pigeon breeds, such as the racing pigeon. Meanwhile, "wood pigeon" by itself usually means the Common Wood-pigeon
(C. palumbus).

This genus as understood today is native to the Old World, but some – notably the domestic and feral Rock Pigeon – have been introduced outside their natural range, for example in the Americas.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Columba_(genus)

The three western European Columba pigeons, though superficially alike, have very distinctive characters.
The Wood Pigeon may at once be told by the white on its neck (in adults) and wings.
The Rock Pigeon and Stock Pigeon are more alike in size and plumage, but wild specimens of the former have a white rump
and two well-marked dark bars on the wing, while the rump of the Stock Pigeon is grey and its wing bars incomplete.
Feral pigeon (the same species as Rock Pigeon) is highly variable, and indistinctly marked grey specimens with the white rump missing,
can sometimes resemble the Stock Pigeon quite closely.
(Easy, isn't it?)

English Norsk Latin
White-naped Pigeon Hvitnakkedue Columba albinucha
White-collared Pigeon Etiopiadue Columba albitorques
Silvery Wood-Pigeon Sølvdue Columba argentina
Rameron Pigeon Gulbrilledue Columba arquatrix
Bolle's Pigeon Kanaridue Columba bollii
Delegorgue's Pigeon Krittnakkedue Columba delegorguei
Nilgiri Wood-Pigeon Nilgiridue Columba elphinstonii
Pale-backed Pigeon Morbærdue Columba eversmanni
Speckled Pigeon Spragledue Columba guinea
Speckled Wood-Pigeon Sølvhodedue Columba hodgsonii
Bronze-naped Pigeon Bronsenakkedue Columba iriditorques
Japanese Wood-Pigeon Mikadodue Columba janthina
Ryukyu Pigeon Ryukyudue Columba jouyi
Laurel Pigeon Laurbærdue Columba junoniae
Lemon Dove Trolldue Columba larvata
White-headed Pigeon Dronningdue Columba leucomela
Snow Pigeon Snødue Columba leuconota
Rock Dove Klippedue (domestisert: bydue) Columba livia
Sao Tome Pigeon Glansnakkedue Columba malherbii
Stock Pigeon Skogdue Columba oenas
Somali Pigeon Somalidue Columba oliviae
Yellow-legged Pigeon Praktdue Columba pallidiceps
Andaman Wood-Pigeon Andamandue Columba palumboides
Common Wood-Pigeon Ringdue Columba palumbus
Comoro Pigeon Komordue Columba pollenii
Ashy Wood-Pigeon Kragedue Columba pulchricollis
Pale-capped Pigeon Blekkronedue Columba punicea
Hill Pigeon Steindue Columba rupestris
Forest Dove Saotométrolldue Columba simplex
Cameroon Pigeon Flekkpurpurdue Columba sjostedti
Maroon Pigeon Saotomédue Columba thomensis
Ceylon Wood-Pigeon Singaleserdue Columba torringtoni
Trocaz Pigeon Madeiradue Columba trocaz
Afep Pigeon Skiferdue Columba unicincta
Bonin Pigeon Bonindue Columba versicolor
Metallic Pigeon Hvitstrupedue Columba vitiensis

Family Columbidae

Subfamily Columbinae – typical pigeons & doves
Genus Columba including Aplopelia – Old World pigeons (33-34 living species, 2-3 recently extinct)

Genus Streptopelia including Stigmatopelia and Nesoenas – turtledoves (14-18 living species)
Streptopelia is a genus of birds in the dove family. These are mainly slim, small to medium-sized species.
The upperparts tend to be pale brown, and the underparts are often a shade of pink.
Many have a characteristic black-and-white patch on the neck, and monotonous cooing songs.

Like Streptopelia orientalis, the turtle-doves typically have a "scaled" neck and wing pattern
The heartland of this genus is Africa, but several species occur in tropical southern Asia.
As a group, this genus is highly successful; many species are abundant in a range of habitats in the tropics,
and two now have a much more extensive distribution.

English Norsk Latin
Eurasian Turtle-Dove Turteldue Streptopelia turtur
Dusky Turtle-Dove Rustvingedue Streptopelia lugens
Adamawa Turtle-Dove Rosenbukdue Streptopelia hypopyrrha
Oriental Turtle-Dove Mongolturteldue Streptopelia orientalis
Island Collared-Dove Jomfrudue Streptopelia bitorquata
Eurasian Collared-Dove Tyrkerdue Streptopelia decaocto
African Collared-Dove Saheldue (domestisert: latterdue) Streptopelia roseogrisea
White-winged Collared-Dove Elvedue Streptopelia reichenowi
African Mourning Dove Klagedue Streptopelia decipiens
Red-eyed Dove Rødøyedue Streptopelia semitorquata
Ring-necked Dove Savannedue Streptopelia capicola
Vinaceous Dove Vindue Streptopelia vinacea
Red Collared-Dove Gråhodedue Streptopelia tranquebarica
Madagascar Turtle-Dove Umbradue Streptopelia picturata
Spotted Dove Perlekragedue Streptopelia chinensis
Laughing Dove Palmedue Streptopelia senegalensis

Genus Patagioenas – American pigeons; formerly in Columba (17 species)
caribaea/Band-tailed group (Chloroenas): Tails with terminal bands and iridescent neck;
rows of low single coos. Apparently the most basal group.[1]

Band-tailed Pigeon, Patagioenas fasciata
Chilean Pigeon, Patagioenas araucana, Skjellgrandue
Ring-tailed Pigeon, Patagioenas caribaea
leucocephala group (Patagioenas sensu stricto): Iridescent neck and dark plumage,
or white edged outer wing coverts, or scaly appearance;
groups of triple coos with the first call in each drawn out except in speciosa

White-crowned Pigeon Patagioenas leucocephala
Scaly-naped Pigeon, Patagioenas squamosa
Scaled Pigeon, Patagioenas speciosa
Picazuro Pigeon, Patagioenas picazuro, Picazurodue
Bare-eyed Pigeon, Patagioenas corensis
Spot-winged Pigeon, Patagioenas maculosa
cayennensis group: No display plumage except iridescent head in cayennensis;
groups of double or triple coos with the first call in each short

Pale-vented Pigeon, Patagioenas cayennensis
Red-billed Pigeon, Patagioenas flavirostris
Maranon Pigeon, Patagioenas oenops
Plain Pigeon, Patagioenas inornata
plumbea group (Oenoenas): Small size, plain plumage, rounded tails,
small bills, phrase composed of high single coos

Plumbeous Pigeon, Patagioenas plumbea
Ruddy Pigeon, Patagioenas subvinacea
Short-billed Pigeon, Patagioenas nigrirostris
Dusky Pigeon, Patagioenas goodsoni
Genus Ectopistes – Passenger Pigeon; formerly Leptotilinae (extinct; 1914)
Genus Macropygia (10 species)
Genus Reinwardtoena (3 species)
Genus Turacoena (2 species)

Subfamily N.N. – Bronzewings and relatives
Genus Turtur – African wood-doves (5 species; tentatively placed here)
Emerald-spotted Wood Dove, Turtur chalcospilos
Black-billed Wood Dove, Turtur abyssinicus
Blue-spotted Wood Dove, Turtur afer
Tambourine Dove, Turtur tympanistria
Blue-headed Wood Dove, Turtur brehmeri

Genus Oena – Namaqua Dove (tentatively placed here)
Genus Chalcophaps (2 species)
Genus Henicophaps (2 species)
Genus Phaps (3 species)
Genus Ocyphaps – Crested Pigeon
Genus Geophaps (3 species)
Genus Petrophassa – rock-pigeons (2 species)
Genus Geopelia (3–5 species)

Subfamily Leptotilinae – Zenaidine and quail-doves
Genus Zenaida (7 species)
Genus Leptotila (11 species)
Genus Geotrygon – quail-doves (16 species)
Genus Starnoenas – Blue-headed Quail-Dove

Subfamily Columbininae – American ground doves
Genus Columbina (7 species)
Genus Claravis (3 species)
Genus Metriopelia (4 species)
Genus Scardafella – possibly belongs into Columbina (2 species)
Genus Uropelia – Long-tailed Ground Dove

Subfamily N.N. – Indopacific ground doves
Genus Gallicolumba (16-17 living species, 3-4 recently extinct)
Gallicolumba is a mid-sized genus of ground-dwelling doves (family Columbidae) which occur in rainforests on the Philippines, Indonesia,
and in the Pacific region.

This genus includes the Pacific ground-doves and the bleeding-hearts known from the Philippines.
The latter are named for their vivid-red patch on the breast, which looks startlingly like a bleeding wound in some species
and has reminded naturalists of a dagger stab. The diet of doves of this genus consists of fruits and seed.

English Norsk Latin
Luzon Bleeding-heart Luzonbloddue Gallicolumba luzonica
Catanduanes Bleeding-heart   Gallicolumba luzonica rubiventris -extinct?
Mindanao Bleeding-heart Mindanaobloddue Gallicolumba crinigera
Basilan Bleeding-heart Gallicolumba luzonica rubiventris -extinct?
Mindoro Bleeding-heart Mindorobloddue Gallicolumba platenae
Negros Bleeding-heart Negrosbloddue Gallicolumba keayi
Sulu Bleeding-heart Tawitawibloddue Gallicolumba menagei
Cinnamon Ground-Dove Gulbrystjorddue Gallicolumba rufigula
Sulawesi Ground-Dove Sulawesijorddue Gallicolumba tristigmata
White-bibbed Ground-Dove, Purple GD Hvitbrynjorddue Gallicolumba jobiensis
Vella Lavella Ground Dove,   Gallicolumba jobiensis chalconota, extinct?
Caroline Islands Ground-Dove
White-fronted Ground Dove
Karolinejorddue Gallicolumba kubaryi
Polynesian Ground-Dove Tuamotujorddue Gallicolumba erythroptera
White-headed Polynesian Ground Dove   Gallicolumba erythroptera albicolli, extinct?
White-throated Ground-Dove Marianejorddue Gallicolumba xanthonura
Friendly Ground-Dove
Tongan Ground Dove
Eremittjorddue Gallicolumba stairi
Santa Cruz Ground-Dove Santacruzjorddue Gallicolumba sanctaecrucis
Tanna Ground-Dove Tannajorddue Gallicolumba ferruginea, extinct?
Thick-billed Ground-Dove
Salomonjorddue Gallicolumba salamonis, extinct?
Marquesas Ground-Dove Hvitvingejorddue Gallicolumba rubescens
Bronze Ground-Dove Blåjorddue Gallicolumba beccarii
Palau Ground-Dove Palaujorddue Gallicolumba canifrons
Wetar Ground-Dove Wetarjorddue Gallicolumba hoedtii

Genus Trugon – Thick-billed Ground Pigeon

Subfamily Otidiphabinae – Pheasant Pigeon
Genus Otidiphaps – Pheasant Pigeon

Subfamily Didunculinae – Tooth-billed Pigeon
Genus Didunculus – Tooth-billed Pigeon

Subfamily Gourinae – crowned pigeons
Genus Goura (3 species)

Subfamily N.N. ("Treroninae") – green and fruit doves and imperial pigeons
Genus Ducula – imperial-pigeons (36 species)
Genus Lopholaimus – Topknot Pigeon
Genus Hemiphaga (2 species)
Genus Cryptophaps – Sombre Pigeon
Genus Gymnophaps – mountain-pigeons (3 species)
Genus Ptilinopus – fruit doves (some 50 living species, 1-2 recently extinct) see here and here
Genus Natunaornis – Viti Levu Giant Pigeon (prehistoric)
Genus Drepanoptila – Cloven-feathered Dove
Genus Alectroenas – blue pigeons (3 living species)

Subfamily Raphinae – didines
Genus Raphus – Dodo (extinct; late 17th century)
Genus Pezophaps – Rodrigues Solitaire (extinct; c.1730)

Placement unresolved
Genus Caloenas – Nicobar Pigeon
Genus Treron – green pigeons (23 species)
Genus Phapitreron – brown doves (3 species)
Genus Leucosarcia – Wonga Pigeon
Genus Microgoura – Choiseul Crested Pigeon (extinct; early 20th century)
Genus Dysmoropelia – Saint Helena Dove (extinct)
Genus Bountyphaps - Henderson Island Archaic Pigeon (prehistoric)


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