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Woodpeckers, Picidae

Picus viridis
© Lubomir Hlasek

Order: Piciformes
Family: Picidae

The woodpeckers, piculets, wrynecks, and sapsuckers are a family, Picidae, of near-passerine birds.
Members of this family are found worldwide, except for Australia and New Zealand, Madagascar, and the extreme
polar regions. Most species live in forests or woodland habitats, although a few species are known to live in treeless
areas such as rocky hillsides and deserts.

The Picidae are just one of the eight living families in the order Piciformes. Members of the order Piciformes,
such as the jacamars, puffbirds, barbets, toucans, and honeyguides, have traditionally been thought to be very closely
related to the woodpeckers, piculets, wrynecks, and sapsuckers.

There are about 200 species and about 30 genera in this family. Many species are threatened or endangered due to
loss of habitat or habitat fragmentation. Two species of woodpeckers, the Ivory-billed Woodpecker and the
Imperial Woodpecker, have been considered extinct for about 30 years.

Bar-breasted Piculet, Picumnus aurifrons (ssp wallacii), 2006
Locality Careiro da Varzea, Amazonas State, Brazil

© Nick Athanas, http://ibc.lynxeds.com/photo/bar-breasted-piculet-picumnus-aurifrons/male-branch

The smallest woodpecker is the Bar-breasted Piculet, at 7 g and 8 cm. Picture above
The largest woodpecker was the Imperial Woodpecker, at an average of 58 cm and probably over 600 g.
The Ivory-billed Woodpecker is (or was) slightly smaller at 50 cm and a weight of 500 g.
If both the Ivory-billed and Imperial Woodpeckers are indeed extinct, the largest extant woodpecker is the
Great Slaty Woodpecker of Southeast Asia, at about 50 cm and 450 g .

Imperial woodpecker, Campephilus imperialis, 2003
male and female from Mexico, Museum Wiesbaden,

Photo: Fritz Geller-Grimm
, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kaiserspecht_fg02.jpg

Family: Picidae

ubfamily: Picumninae - Typical piculets
Genus: Picumnus - American Piculets (c.27 species)
Genus: Verreauxia - African Piculet (sometimes included in Sasia)
Genus: Sasia - Asian Piculets (2 species)
Subfamily: Nesoctitinae
Genus Nesoctites - Antillean Piculet
Subfamily: Picinae - Woodpeckers
Tribe: Dendropicini
Genus: Melanerpes (some 22 species)
Genus: Sphyrapicus - sapsuckers (4 species)
Genus: Xiphidiopicus -
Cuban Green Woodpecker (Placement in Dendropicini tentative)
Genus: Dendropicos (15 species)
Genus: Mesopicos (3 species)
Genus: Dendrocopos (21 species)
Genus: Picoides (presently 12 species; maybe only 3 belong here)
Genus: Veniliornis (14 species)
Tribe: Malarpicini
Genus: Campethera (12 species)
Genus: Geocolaptes - Ground Woodpecker
Genus: Dinopium - malarpicine flamebacks (4 species)
Genus: Meiglyptes (3 species)
Genus: Hemicircus (2 species; placement in Malarpicini tentative)
Genus: Micropternus - Rufous Woodpecker (formerly in Celeus)
Tribe: Picini (sometimes included in Malarpicini)
Genus: Picus (c. 15 species)
Banded Woodpecker, Picus miniaceus
Lesser Yellownape, Picus chlorolophus
Crimson-winged Woodpecker, Picus puniceus
Greater Yellownape, Picus flavinucha
Checker-throated Woodpecker, Picus mentalis
Streak-breasted Woodpecker, Picus viridanus
Laced Woodpecker, Picus vittatus
Streak-throated Woodpecker, Picus xanthopygaeus
Scaly-bellied Woodpecker, Picus squamatus
Japanese Green Woodpecker, Picus awokera
European Green Woodpecker, Picus viridis
   Iberian Woodpecker, Picus viridis sharpei
Levaillant's Woodpecker, Picus vaillantii
Red-collared Woodpecker, Picus rabieri
Black-headed Woodpecker, Picus erythropygius
Grey-headed Woodpecker, Picus canus
Genus: Mulleripicus (3 species)
Genus: Dryocopus (7 species)
Helmeted Woodpecker, Dryocopus galeatus
Lineated Woodpecker, Dryocopus lineatus
Pileated Woodpecker, Dryocopus pileatus
Black-bodied Woodpecker, Dryocopus schulzi
White-bellied Woodpecker, Dryocopus javensis
Andaman Woodpecker, Dryocopus hodgei
Black Woodpecker, Dryocopus martius
Genus: Celeus (11 species)
Genus: Piculus (7 species)
Genus: Colaptes - flickers (about 12 species)
Tribe: Megapicini
Genus: Campephilus (11 species, 2 possibly recently extinct)
Genus: Chrysocolaptes - megapicine flamebacks (2 species)
Genus: Reinwardtipicus - Orange-backed Woodpecker
Genus: Blythipicus (2 species)
Genus: Gecinulus (2 species; placement in Megapicini tentative)
Genus: Sapheopipo -
Okinawa Woodpecker (Placement in Megapicini tentative)
Subfamily: Jynginae - the wrynecks
Genus: Jynx
Eurasian Wryneck, Jynx torquilla
Red-throated Wryneck, or Rufous-necked Wryneck, Jynx ruficollis

Little Gray Woodpecker Sahelspett Dendropicos elachus
Sind Woodpecker Urduspett Dendrocopos assimilis
Stripe-breasted Woodpecker Furuspett Dendrocopos atratus
Brown-fronted Woodpecker Bergspett Dendrocopos auriceps
Gray-capped Woodpecker Akrobatspett Dendrocopos canicapillus
Crimson-breasted Woodpecker Karminbrystspett Dendrocopos cathpharius
Darjeeling Woodpecker Mosespett Dendrocopos darjellensis
Arabian Woodpecker Araberspett Dendrocopos dorae
Himalayan Woodpecker Himalayaspett Dendrocopos himalayensis
Rufous-bellied Woodpecker Ferskenspett Dendrocopos hyperythrus
Pygmy Woodpecker Knøttspett Dendrocopos kizuki
White-winged Woodpecker Hvitvingespett Dendrocopos leucopterus
White-backed Woodpecker Hvitryggspett Dendrocopos leucotos
Fulvous-breasted Woodpecker Orientspett Dendrocopos macei
Philippine Woodpecker Filippinerspett Dendrocopos maculatus
Yellow-crowned Woodpecker Ildkronespett Dendrocopos mahrattensis
Great Spotted Woodpecker Flaggspett Dendrocopos major
Middle Spotted Woodpecker Mellomspett Dendrocopos medius
Lesser Spotted Woodpecker Dvergspett Dendrocopos minor
Brown-capped Woodpecker Hinduspett Dendrocopos moluccensis
Syrian Woodpecker Syriaspett Dendrocopos syriacus
Sulawesi Woodpecker Sulawesispett Dendrocopos temminckii
Abyssinian Woodpecker Gullkappespett Dendropicos abyssinicus
Elliot's Woodpecker Sitronspett Dendropicos elliotii
Cardinal Woodpecker Kardinalspett Dendropicos fuscescens
Gabon Woodpecker Flekkspett Dendropicos gabonensis
Gray Woodpecker Askehodespett Dendropicos goertae
Olive Woodpecker Sothodespett Dendropicos griseocephalus
Melancholy Woodpecker Sørgespett Dendropicos lugubris
Bearded Woodpecker Skjeggspett Dendropicos namaquus
Brown-backed Woodpecker Brunryggspett Dendropicos obsoletus
Speckle-breasted Woodpecker Flekkbrystspett Dendropicos poecilolaemus
Fire-bellied Woodpecker Ildbukspett Dendropicos pyrrhogaster
Gray-headed Woodpecker Gråhodespett Dendropicos spodocephalus
Stierling's Woodpecker Miombospett Dendropicos stierlingi
Golden-crowned Woodpecker Gulissespett Dendropicos xantholophus
Black Woodpecker Svartspett Dryocopus martius
Eurasian Wryneck Vendehals Jynx torquilla
Red-throated Wryneck
Rufous-necked Wryneck
  Jynx ruficollis
List of norwegian names: Source: Norsk Ornitologisk Forening


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