Active volcanoes / Aktive vulkaner:
Gamalama, Indonesia

Photo by Jack Lockwood, 1980 (U.S. Geological Survey).

Gamalama (Peak of Ternate) is a near-conical stratovolcano that comprises the entire island of Ternate off the western
coast of Halmahera and is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. The island of Ternate was a major regional center in
the Portuguese and Dutch spice trade for several centuries, which contributed to the thorough documentation of
Gamalama's historical activity. Three cones, progressively younger to the north, form the summit of Gamalama, which
reaches 1715 m. Several maars and vents define a rift zone, parallel to the Halmahera island arc, that cuts the volcano.
Eruptions, recorded frequently since the 16th century, typically originated from the summit craters, although flank
eruptions have occurred in 1763, 1770, 1775, and 1962-63.

Wednesday, December 28th, 2011
Fast-moving mudflows streaming from the mouth of a volcano in eastern Indonesia have killed four villagers.
About 1000 others have fled their homes.

Days of heavy rains triggered flows of cold lava, rocks and other debris that slammed into villages near the
base on Tuesday night. Four people were killed and more than a dozen others were hospitalised with injuries
ranging from broken bones to head wounds.

Monday, December 12th, 2011
Thousands of residents of Ternate city, North Maluku, were evacuated on Wednesday after a cold lava flood
from the recent eruption of Mt. Gamalama destroyed 67 houses and three bridges.
The Jakarta Post | Thu, 12/15/2011 11:19 AM

A very good Reuters video describing the power of the volcano, including the lahar-like mixture of ash
and torrential rain, and the way people have to deal with it

Friday, December 9th, 2011
The eruptions are still happening but not so often.
Wednesday there hasbeen lahar flooding in several areas, but there had been no casualties.

Thursday December 8th, 2011

Sunday at 23.00 UTC there was an eruption from Gamalama. Volcanic ash covered most parts of Ternate
and shut down the electricity in the areas around the slopes. The eruption forced to closure of a nearby airport and
blanketing villages with thick ash. No injuries have been reported.

Gamalama spewed clouds of thick gray ash into the air late Sunday. Slow moving red lava was also visible at its peak.
Residents of 10 subdistricts in the Maluku city of Ternate have been evacuated, while schools have been closed.
Residents of the 10 subdistricts in North Ternate district were evacuated because those areas would likely be in
the way of lava flows.

A total of 4,000 masks for Mt. Gamalama eruption evacuees, part of the aid package from the North Sulawesi provincial
government, were found to be missing when the package arrived at the Ahmad Yani seaport in Ternate, North Maluku

Alert level has been set to Three - Orange, while Four - RED is the most dangerous.

long time ago
An explosion at Gamalama on 31 July produced an ash cloud that rose to 1-2 km above the summit. The explosion was accompanied by a pyroclastic flow that traveled ~1 km. Ash fell in the town of Ternate ~30 km N of the volcano and some residents near the volcano were evacuated. Gamalama is at Alert Level 4, the highest level.

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