Active volcanoes / Aktive vulkaner:
Papandayan, Indonesia    

Steam rises above the Kawah Mas thermal area in the crater of Papandayan.
This view from NW showsGunung Warirang to the left
and the eastern wall of the Papandayan crater in the background.
The 1772 debris avalanche travelled down the valley to the left.
Photo: Tom Casadevall, 1986 (USGS)

Papandayan is situated on the island of Java, at 7°32' S and 107°73'E, rising 2.665 m asl, and
lies apprx. 175 km south east of the Indonesian capital Jakarta. Papandayan is a complex stratovolcano with four large summit craters, the youngest of which has breached to the
NE by collapse during a brief eruption in 1772 and contains active fumarole fields.

The lighter colored area on the left is Alun-Alun, the uppermost of four large craters.
The valley below in the center of the photo extending to the NE in the breach left by collapse
in 1772. The volcano in the distance is Gunung Guntur, another historically active volcano
Photo: Tom Casadevall, 1986 (USGS)

The broad 1.1 km wide, flat-floored Alun-Alun crater truncates the summit of Papandayan,
and Gunung Puntang to the north gives the volcano a twin-peaked appearance. Several
episodes of collapse have given the volcano an irregular profile and produced debris
avalanches that have impacted lowland areas beyond the volcano.

Since its first historical eruption in 1772, in which a catastrophic debris avalanche destroyed
40 villages, only two small phreatic eruptions have occured from the vents in the NE-flank
fumarole field, Kawah Mas.

Steam rises ffrom a sulfur-encrusted fumarole at Kawah Mas (Golden Crater),
a frequently visited destination at Papandayan.
A lirge number of high-temperature fumaroles, with temperatures
of several hundred degrees C, are located within Kawah Mas.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsoinian Institution)

November 21st, 2002
Volcanic activity dominated by explosion and emission, which has medium-high intensity.
These activities were accompanied by the crater-wall collapsing, near Kawah Baru.

Eruption activity at Kawah Baru, 17 November 2002
Click on picture for larger view

Up to 07.45 local time today, there were 98 times explosions, that produced a white-grey ash plume which rose 200-600 m high and blew westward. Seismograph remain showing volcanic tremosr, emissions ( medium-high intensity), and continuous explosions .List of seismic record is: 10 shallow volcanic, 1 low frequency, and continuous tremor.

Eruption on 14 November 2002
Click on picture for larger view

November 20th, 2002
White thick ash plume emitted westward, and reached 100-1500 m asl. Heavy rain occurred
at 05.02 local time. Ash eruptions also occurred, reaching 1500 m asl, producing dark-grey
ashfall drifting northeast, then north and northwest. This eruption had its source in Nangklak
crater, one of eruption points. Ash fall reached 2 cm thickness in radius of 2 km (northwest).

Seismic activity revealed as volcanic, tremor, and medium intensity of continuous emission. Explosion earthquake noted 1 time. List of seismic record is : 17 shallow volcanic, 1 deep volcanic, 2 tectonic, continuous tremor, and 1 low frequency. Volcano status is in level 3.


Damages at Tea Plantation (left) and vegetable fields right) caused by ashfall.
Looks like Norway during winter with snow all over..
© .

November 19th, 2002
Volcanic activity dominated by ash emission, while medium pressured-ash explosion occurred continuously.White-thin ash plume rose from the crater westward, about 200-700 m high, with medium pressure, no rainfall around the volcano. Seismic activity noted continuous emission earthquake, continuous explosion, 2 volcanic, continuous tremor, and tectonic.
On November 18th, 2002, 12.00 local time, volcano status reduced into level 3.

November 17th, 2002
Despite the obvious dangers, many people entered the safety area near Mount Papandayan's crater to get a closer look at the huge majestic eruption. Hundreds of villagers, foreigners, photographers and cameramen took the risk of going in closer than one-kilometer radius cordon zone around the volcano's crater, which was still spewing ash and thick smoke on Saturday.
(So if you ever wondered why people get caught in volcano-eruptions, one of the answers are given here.....)

Damage on rice fields caused by lahar flood on 11 November 2002

The volcano is still dangerous and no one is allowed to enter the forbidden are. Despite the decreasing number of eruptions, there are no signs that the 2,665-meter-high volcanic peak will slow down completely and the situation is still similar to that on Friday. There is nothing the authorities can do to help them if the volcano starts to discharge hot lava that could flow down to farmlands and villages.

Nonetheless, it was a good scene for viewers on Saturday morning to see the volcano's awesome power as it spewed hot ash and thick smoke to a height of 6,000 meters in the air. The ash has been blown to the volcano's southeast over several tea plantations in Bandung regency.

© TEMPO/Hariyanto 2002-11-14

November 16th, 2002
According to monitoring and seismographic records, the volcano, after its major eruption
early this morning (Friday), has shown increasing activity by continually spewing hot ash and
thick smoke to a height of 6,000 meters.

So far the volcano has spewed out more than one million cubic meters of volcanic material, including silica, magnesium and sulfur, which would be dangerous to humans if it were mixed
with the mudflows moving toward the Cileutik, Cibeureum and Cimanuk Rivers flowing
from the volcano.

Some 2,600 hectares of paddy(?) field in the regency were suffering a shortage of water as the mudflows had damaged several dams on the Cibeureum River. About Rp 7.5 billion (US$830,000) to Rp 10 billion would be needed to repair the damaged dams over the
next five years.

Not much to do when you have to evacuate
© TEMPO/Arie Basuki;2002-11-15

November 15th, 2002
Papandayan erupted early this morning, around 6:00 o'clock local time, belching thick smoke
up to 6.000 m into the sky, sending hot ash and lava onto nearby areas, and triggering panic
among residents in nearby areas. (Indonesian Post said: 'There were no signs of hot lava or clouds of poisonous gas that often accompany volcanic eruptions')

A major eruption took place at 6:33 a.m. this morning. After that more than 10 big eruptions
were recorded within an hour. Friday morning's eruption was the biggest so far since the Papandayan volcano began to rumble early this week. Before the eruption as many as 48 tremors were recorded in 12 hours.

The long-dormant Papandayan volcano has been causing havoc in the area since Monday afternoon, when lahar -- accumulated lava from past flows -- on the volcano's peak broke
off after heavy rains and poured down on nearby villages, burying 17 houses, an Islamic
boarding school and two bridges.

Officials on Friday issued their maximum alert status for Papandayan in West Java province
after a dawn eruption. Residents have been evacuated out of a four kilometre area around the volcano.

November 13th, 2002, 08:00 GMT
At least 5,000 people have fled their homes near a volcano in Indonesia's West Java province which is emitting smoke and mudflows. At least six out of eight craters of the Papandayan
volcano began emitting white and black smoke on Tuesday.

The authorities have also closed an area of seven kilometres from the peak of the volcano. And here comes what is confusing: The volcano near the town of Garut had since Tuesday been emitting mudflows known as lahar into the Cibeureum river. Since this is NOT a mud-volcano,
the only answer I can imagine, is that rain has fallen and brought ash from the flanks downwards and that mixture has become mudflows. Anyone else have any suggestions?

At least 18 homes in two villages had been destroyed by the mudflows, and 5,000 people had
fled their homes compared to 2,000 on Monday, when the volcano belched smoke and lava.
The refugees have taken shelter in a mosque, a sport stadium and a local provincial government office in Cisurupan. The mudflows covered around 43 hectares of rice fields in one village.
Officials have set up four emergency medical posts to help the villagers.

© TEMPO/Arie Basuki;2002-11-14

November 13th, 2002, 07:00 GMT
There have been no reports of fatalities but the lava has destroyed houses in a nearby village.
The authorities has rised the alarm-level, as they expect more lava is trying to get out from the volcano in the near future.

November 13th, 2002
'Papandayan volcano cools down, 3,000 people refuse to return' - That's the next newsline
we read, and you get a bit confused, after having heard that this was only a mudslide.

According to 'The Jakarta Post', Papandayan now has stopped spewing out lava, but 3,000 frightened villagers are still too scared to return home. On Tuesday afternoon only white smoke was emitting from one of its craters, but during Monday the number of residents who had
fled their homes rose from 2,000 to 3,000. There are 5 villages that have been evacuated.

Lava and ash have flowed down the volcano-flanks into the Cibeureum river.

November 12th, 2002, afternoon
It might have been a mudslide, mistaken for an eruption.

November 12th, 2002
A news-article this morning says: 'Thousands Flee Volcano in Indonesia'. It is the Papandayan volcano that should have erupted yesterday, forcing about 1,000 people to flee their villages.
Lava has been spewed into the air around 3 PM local time. Inhabitants of two nearby villages
have already moved to safer places, and the authorities are prepaired to evacuate other citites.

It has now, Tuesday morning, been confirmed that there has been an eruption here, and we
will be back later today with more news. However, there are no immediate reports of damage
or casualties.

 Latest news always above. Older eruptions below.

Also in the years 1923 and 1942 were small eruptions, both at VEI 1, with much lesser damages and casualties than the great VEI 3 eruption of 1772.

Collapse of the summit of Papandayan on August 8, 1772, accompaniesd by a brief,
5 minute long explosive eruption, produced a debris avalanche that swept
over lowland areas to the east, destroying 40 villages and killing 2.957 persons.
The farmland in the foreground are underlain by the deposits from this avalanche,
which traveled 11 km from the volcano.

Photo: Tom Casadevall, 1986 (USGS)

Bilder og tekst denne side: Photo and text this page:
Kimberly, P., Siebert, L., Luhr, J.F., and Simkin, T. (1998). Volcanoes of Indonesia, v. 1.0 (CD-ROM).
Smithsonian Institution, Global Volcanism Program, Digital Information Series, GVP-1.
 V S I, Indonesia
 Visit our photo-gallery of the volcanoes of Indonesia!

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