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Galapagos Penguin, Spheniscus mendiculus    

Galapagos Penguin  Galapagospingvin      Manchot des Galapagos Galapagospinguin
  Galapagospingvin   Pinguino de las Galapagos

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2bde; B1ab(v)c(iv)+2ab(v)c(iv); C2a(ii)b ver 3.1
Year Assessed: 2010
Long-term monitoring indicates that this species is undergoing severe fluctuations,
primarily as a result of marine perturbations that may be becoming more extreme.
These perturbations have caused an overall very rapid population reduction over
the last three generations (34 years). In addition, it has a small population, and is restricted
to a very small range, with nearly all birds breeding at just one location.
These factors qualify it as Endangered.
History: 2008 – Endangered
2007 – Endangered
2005 – Endangered
2004 – Endangered
2000 – Endangered
1994 – Vulnerable
1988 – Near Threatened
©2010. Spheniscus mendiculus. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.3.
<www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 September 2010..

Galapagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus) at Elizabeth Bay
on the island of Isabela, Galapagos.


The Galapagos Penguin is the smallest of  the warm weather penguins.
This penguin stands approximately 16-18 inches (40-45 cm) tall and weighs around 5 pounds (3,5 kg).
The Galapagos Penguin lives and breeds on the Galapagos Islands and on Isabella Island which are located north of the Equator.

These penguins will only mate when food is plentiful. Galapagos Penguins almost always lay two eggs,
however only one chick will survive. The parent penguins share the responsibility of caring for the eggs. The chicks will hatch after
around 38-40 days. Upon hatching, the chicks are cared for by both parents. The chick is guarded, round the clock for 30 days
after it hatches. When the chicks reach 60-65 days old they leave their nests for good and go to sea.

Galápagos Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus). Three on dark rock by the sea on Galapagos.

The breeding period differs from other penguins, as the Galapagos penguin seem to be breeding any time of the year, but is related to temperatures in the sea, which ought to be below 24 degrees Celcius.

The Galapagos Penguins survive mainly on mullet and sardines. They have normal human working hours, as they leave their
close-to-the-coastland colonies about 6 o'clock in the morning, and come back from 'job' around 17.00 in the afternoon.
Then they stay in the colony overnight.

Galapagos Penguin juvenile (Spheniscus mendiculus), Galapagos Islands, Ecuador.
Photo: Clark Anderson/Aquaimages.

ARKive video - Galapagos penguin - overview   ARKive video - Galapagos penguins hunting shoal of fish
Galapagos penguin - overview and Galapagos penguins hunting shoal of fish
Green Umbrella Ltd.+NHNZ Moving Images and ABC Library Sales

http://www.arkive.org/galapagos-penguin/spheniscus-mendiculus/video-00.html and video-08.html

These penguins are considered to be endangered,
because when the 1970 El Nino storm hit over 70% of these penguins died due to food shortage.
Text above mostly from http://home.sjfc.edu/cals/units/mcgowan/fairy%20penguin.htm

The population size was estimated at about 1500 individuals in 2004 and 2008
(Jiminez-Uzcategui and Vargas 2008. CDF Peng. & Cormorant Survey).


over 250


over 500


over 225
Web www.vulkaner.no

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