Our Beautiful World

Scotia Sea
Part 3 . Other Seabirds

From a rearranged translation from Vladimir Dinets translation to norwegian, with supplements.

Click on flag for the original english version

Light-mantled albatross, Phoebetria palpebrata,
off South Georgia.

Other Seabirds.

In addition to penguins, at least seventy other species of seabirds can be seen in Scotia Sea at least occasionally;
about half of them breed here. The most numerous are small bluish-grey birds called Antarctic prion, also called
Dove Prion, Pachyptila desolata, and Blue Petrell, Halobaena caerulea, South of the Antarctic Convergence,
you can usually see hundreds of them flying around at any given time.

The writer of the original version of those pages, does not have any pictures of them, because their fast, irregular flight
makes them almost impossible to photograph unless you get to their breeding grounds. Most seabird colonies in the
area are off-limits to visitors coming by cruise ships: landings usually occur on protected beaches, while smaller seabirds
nest in burrows on grassy slopes, and albatrosses need steep hills where strong winds allow them to take off easily .

Antarctic prion, also called Dove Prion, Pachyptila desolata,
Photo: © Tony Palliser

The Antarctic Prion, Pachyptila desolata is a member of the Pachyptila genus, and along with the Blue Petrel, Halobaena caerulea, makes up the Prions. They in turn are members of the Procellariidae family, and the Procellariiformes order.
The prions are small and typically eat just zooplankton; however as a member of the Procellariiformes, they share certain identifying features. First, they have nasal passages that attach to the upper bill called naricorns.
Although the nostrils on the Prion are on top of the upper bill. The bills of Procellariiformes are also unique in that they are split into between 7 and 9 horny plates. They produce a stomach oil made up of wax esters and triglycerides that is stored in the proventriculus. This is used against predators as well as an energy rich food source for chicks and for the adults during their long flights. Finally, they also have a salt gland that is situated above the nasal passage and helps desalinate their bodies, due to the high amount of ocean water that they imbibe.
It excretes a high saline solution from their nose.

The Antarctic Prion, Pachyptila desolata, also known as the Dove Prion, or Totorore in Maori, is the largest
of the prions, a genus of small petrels of the Southern Ocean.
Pachyptila, the word, comes from the Greek words pakhus and ptilon. Pakhus means thick or stout and ptilon means a feather. Desolatus is Latin for forsaken or desolate. This is in reference to the desolate Antarctic region where they live. Also from the Greek language, Prion comes from the word prion meaning a saw, which is in reference to its serrated edges of its bill.

The wingspan is 17 to 20 cm (6.7 to 7.9 in),[7] while the body length is 28 cm (11 in).[6] Like all prions, its underparts are white and upperparts are blue-grey, with a dark "M" across its back to its wingtips. It has a white eyebrow, blue-grey bill, and blue feet. It also has a grey wedge-shaped tail with a black tip. On its wings, its greater coverts are near black.[8]

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antarctic_Prion

South Georgia,
March, 2006
Photo: © Mike Danzenbaker http://avesphoto.com/website/AO/species/PETBLU-1.htm

The Blue Petrel, Halobaena caerulea, is a small seabird. This small petrel is the only member of the genus Halobaena but is closely allied to the prions.

The Blue Petrel's plumage is white underneath and grey on its upper parts, with an "M" banding across its top, which is similar to the prion's. It also has a white-tipped tail. Its bill is smaller than prions.
They feed predominantly on krill, as well as other crustaceans, fish, and squid. They can dive up to at 6 m (20 ft).
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_Petrel

bird bird bird
Wandering albatross, Diomedea exulans, has the largest wingspan of all living birds: up to 3.6 m/12'.
About 4,000 pairs breed on South Georgia. Burdwood Bank, Scotia Sea.

Grey-headed albatross near breeding grounds,
South Georgia.
The most common albatross in the area is the black-browed albatross,
Diomedea (Thalassarche) melanophris, with almost half a million pairs on the Falklands and 60,000 pairs on South Georgia. Grey-headed albatross, Diomedea (Thalassarche) chrysostoma, is less numerous,
with less than 40,000 pairs on South Georgia and 20,000 on Diego Ramirez islands south of Cape Horn. Each species has its own migration patterns. Wandering albatrosses are believed to fly around the Antarctic after each breeding season, making up to 50 flights around the globe in their lifetime. Albatrosses feed on whatever they can snatch from surface, although black-browed albatross prefers krill and fish, while others feed mostly on squid. All albatrosses are now under threat: many birds are accidentally killed by fishing operations.
Grey-headed and black-browed
South Georgia.

bird bird bird
Black-browed albatrosses. Off Isla de los Estados, Scotia Sea.

Thalassarche chrysostoma
Photo: Ben Phalan, British Antarctic Survey

The Grey-headed Albatross
, Thalassarche chrysostoma, also known as the Grey-headed Mollymawk, is a large seabird from the albatross family. It has a circumpolar distribution, nesting on isolated islands in the Southern Ocean and feeding at high latitudes, further south than any of the other mollymawks. Its name derives from its ashy-grey head, throat and upper neck.

The meaning of the name chrysostoma is derived from two Greek words. Khrusos' means gold and stoma means the mouth, in reference to its golden bill.

The Grey-headed Albatross averages 81 cm (32 in) in length and 2.2 m (7.2 ft) in wingspan. Weight can range from 2.8 to 4.4 kg (6.2 to 9.7 lb), with a mean mass of 3.65 kg (8.0 lb). It has a dark ashy-grey head, throat, and upper neck, and its upper wings, mantle, and tail, are almost black. It has a white rump, underparts, and a white crescent behind its eyes. Its bill is black, with bright yellow upper and lower ridges, thatt shades to pink-orange at the tip.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grey-headed_Albatross

Light-mantled albatross building a nest.
Hills above Grytviken, South Georgia.
Probably the most beautiful seabird of the Southern Ocean is the light-mantled albatross
Phoebetria palpebrata
. These long-tailed, narrow-winged birds nest on steep, often rocky, slopes. Their breeding season starts later than in most other seabirds, sometimes in late summer. Less than 8,000 pairs breed on South Georgia.

Courtship flight of light-mantled albatrosses.
Hills above Grytviken, South Georgia.

Antarctic or Southern giant petrels, Macronectes giganteus, Northern giant or Hall's Giant petrels, Macronectes halli,
and one white-chinned petrel, Procellaria aequinoctialis,
Elsehul, South Georgia.
Antarctic or Southern giant petrel. These birds have more universal airframe than albatrosses: they are not as good at gliding, but are less dependent on wind. Ushuaia,
Tierra del Fuego. .

Dark phase of Antarctic
or Southern giant petrel,
Elsehul, Syd Georgia.
Giant petrels are the vultures of the Southern Ocean. They feed on carrion; males also kill small birds, while female are better at catching squid and fish. Both species have variable coloration. Northern giant petrel, with pink bill tip, is less common, with just 3,000 pairs on South Georgia. Southern giant petrel is more numerous and widespread; some birds in the far South are almost pure white. Both species are highly migratory, and sometimes form mixed colonies, but Northern giant petrel starts breeding much earlier (late September rather than November).
White phase of Antarctic
or Southern giant petrel,
off South Orkney Islands

Antarctic or Southern Giant petrell
Drake Passage.
Both species of giant petrels,
Drake Passage.
Hall's or Northern giant petrel,
Gold Harbour, South Georgia

Giant petrel with chicks, Macronectes giganteus, January 1999
Note the tip of the bill - the green colour which differ it from the Northern specimen.
Photo: Mila Zinkova, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Giant_petrel_with_chicks.jpg

The Southern Giant Petrel
, Macronectes giganteus, also known as the Antarctic Giant Petrel, Giant Fulmar, Stinker, and Stinkpot, is a large seabird of the southern oceans. Its distribution overlaps broadly with the similar Northern Giant Petrel, though it overall is centered slightly further south. Adults of the two species can be separated by the colour of their bill-tip: greenish in the Southern and reddish in the Northern

Macronectes giganteus can be broken down as makros a Greek word meaning long or large and nektes meaning swimmer, and giganteus from the Latin for gigantic. Southern Giant Petrel starts with southern referring to their habitat being further south than their counterpart the Northern Giant Petrel, and Petrel refers to St. Peter and from the story of him walking on water, which refers to how they run on top of the water as they are getting airborne.

This petrel is the largest of the Procellariidae and measures 86–99 cm (34–39 in) with a wingspan of 185–205 cm (73–81 in). The male weighs approximately 5 kg (11 lb) and the female 3–8 kg (6.6–18 lb).
They have a very large yellow bill, with a green tip and greyish-brown legs
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Giant_Petrel

A Northern Giant Petrel on Salisbury Plain, South Georgia
Note the tip of the bill - the brown colour which differ it from the Southern specimen.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Macronectes_halli_-Salisbury_Plain,_South_Georgia,_British_Overseas_Territories,_UK-8.jpg

The Northern Giant Petrel, Macronectes halli, also known as the Hall's Giant Petrel, is a large seabird of the southern oceans. Its distribution overlaps broadly with the similar Southern Giant Petrel, though it overall is centered slightly further north.

The Northern Giant Petrel averages 90 cm (35 in) in length. Its plumage consists of grey-brown body with lighter coloured forehead, sides of face, and chin. Its bill is between 90–105 mm (3.5–4.1 in) long and is pinkish yellow with a brown tip, and its eyes are grey. The juvenile of this species is completely dark brown and lightens as it ages. It can be differentiated from the similar coloured Southern Giant Petrel by the top of the bill, which on the southern is green.

The Northern Giant Petrel feeds mainly on carrion from penguins and pinniped, as well as krill, offal, cephalopods, and discarded fish and waste from ships.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northern_Giant_Petrel

Southern fulmar, Fulmarus glacialoides,
off South Orkney Is.
Numerous other species of petrels, fulmars, shearwaters, prions, diving-petrels and storm-petrels inhabit the islands of the Scotia Sea. The most abundant is Antarctic prion (P. desolata), with 20-30 million pairs on South Georgia alone. All these birds lay only one egg; smaller species usually nest in burrows. On the Falklands, Tierra del Fuego and South Georgia, many are now extinct or rare on main islands because of predation by introduced rats and other mammals, but still breed in huge numbers on offshore islets.
Southern fulmar,
Fulmarus glacialoides,
off South Orkney Is.

Southern Fulmar
Photo © Samuel Blanc, http://www.sblanc.com/

The Southern Fulmar
, Fulmarus glacialoides, is a seabird of the Southern Hemisphere. Along with the Northern Fulmar, Fulmarus glacialis, it belongs to the fulmar genus Fulmarus in the family Procellariidae, the true petrels. It is also known as the Antarctic Fulmar or Silver-grey Fulmar.

It is largely pale grey above and white below with a distinctive white patch on the wing. It breeds on the coast of Antarctica and on surrounding islands, moving north in winter. It nests in colonies on cliffs, laying a single egg on a ledge or crevice. Its diet includes krill, fish and squid picked from the water's surface.

It is a fairly large, bulky petrel, 45–50 cm (18–20 in) long with a wingspan of 110–120 cm (43–47 in).
The male has an average weight of 7.95 kg (280 oz) while the smaller female weighs around 7.40 kg (261 oz). These weights increase to 10.5 and 9.32 kg (370 and 329 oz) at the start of a shift incubating the eggs.
The male has a wing length of 34 cm (13 in), bill length of 44.6 mm (1.76 in)

At sea, it mainly occurs along the outer edge of the pack ice in summer with water temperatures of -1.5 to 0.5°C. In winter, it regularly ranges north to around 40°S. It occurs further north in the cool waters of the Humboldt Current, reaching Peru. Small numbers are seen off the coasts of South Africa, southern Australia and New Zealand.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Fulmar



White-chinned petrels, Elsehul, Syd Georgia.

White-chinned petrel off Kaikoura, 26 February 2007
Photo: Mjobling, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:070226_White-chinned_petrel_off_Kaikoura_1.jpg

The White-chinned Petrel or Cape Hen, Procellaria aequinoctialis, is a large shearwater in the family Procellariidae. It ranges around the Southern Oceans as far north as South Australia, Peru and Namibia,
and breeds colonially on scattered islands

Procellaria comes from two Latin words, procella meaning a storm and arius a suffix meaning pertaining to.
This is in reference to their association with stormy weather. The word Petrel is derived from St. Peter and the story of his walking on water. This is in reference to the Petrels habit of appearing to run on the water to take off.

The White-chinned Petrel measures 51–58 cm (20–23 in) in length, weighs 0.97–1.89 kg (2.1–4.2 lb) and spans 134–147 cm (53–58 in) across the wings. Not only is it the largest Procellaria petrel but is also the largest species in its family outside of the giant petrels. This large petrel is sooty-black and has some white on its throat and chin.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White-chinned_Petrel

bird bird
Cape petrel,
Daption capense,
off Elephant Island,
South Shetland Is.

Snow petrels, Pagodroma nivea,
off Antarctic Peninsula.

At 34-45 g, Wilson's storm petrels, Oceanites oceanicus, are the
smallest seabirds in the Southern Ocean. But they calmly feed even
during the fiercest storms, and migrate all over the world's oceans.
They have good sense of smell, and feed on krill, tiny fish and squid.

A Cape Petrel flying near Clarence Island, Southern Ocean, January 2011
Soource: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Daption_capense_-near_Clarence_Island,_Southern_Ocean_-flying-8_(2).jpg

The Cape Petrel
, Daption capense, also called Cape Pigeon or Pintado Petrel, is a common seabird of the Southern Ocean from the family Procellariidae. It is the only member of the genus Daption, and is allied to the fulmarine petrels, and the Giant Petrels. It is also sometimes known as the Cape Fulmar. They are extremely common seabirds with an estimated population of around 2 million

The Cape Petrel is a unique looking Petrel. It has a black head and neck, and a white belly, breast, and its underwing is white with a black border. Its back, and upperwings are black and white speckled, as is its tail which also has a band of black. When fully grown, their wings span 86 cm (34 in) and they are 39 cm (15 in) long
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cape_Petrel

Snow Petrel (Pagodroma nivea
Photo: Samuel Blanc, http://www.sblanc.com/

The Snow Petrel, Pagodroma nivea, is the only member of the genus Pagodroma. It is one of only three birds that breed exclusively in Antarctica and has been seen at the South Pole. It has the most southerly breeding distribution of any bird

The Snow Petrel, Pagodroma nivea, is a small, pure white fulmarine petrel with black underdown, coal-black
eyes, small black bill and bluish gray feet.[8] Body length is 36–41 cm (14–16 in) and the wingspan is 76–79 cm (30–31 in). Flight is more fluttering than most petrels. They are known to live 14 to 20 years.

Breeding occurs in colonies on the Antarctic Peninsula, and various Antarctic islands.[6] Nesting is colonial in
small to large colonies on cliffs, usually near the sea, but also inland. Only very rarely are they observed north
of the pack ice.

Karnataka Pelagic Udupi, Oct off Malpe coast shot around 50kms from coast.
Shows the Yellow webbet feet of the Petrel.
Oct 2011
Photo: Nanda ramesh, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wilsons_Storm_Petrel_(Oceanites_oceanicus)_webbed_feet_Oct_2011_Karnataka_Pelagic_Udupi.jpg

Wilson's Storm Petrel, Oceanites oceanicus, also known as Wilson's Petrel, is a small seabird of the storm petrel family. It is one of the most abundant bird species in the world and has a circumpolar distribution mainly
in the seas of the southern hemisphere but extending northwards during the summer of the northern hemisphere. The world population has been estimated to be more than 50 million pairs.
The name commemorates the Scottish-American ornithologist Alexander Wilson.

Wilson's Storm Petrel is a small bird, 16–18.5 cm (6.3–7.3 in) in length with a 38–42 cm (15–16.5 in) wingspan. It is slightly larger than the European Storm Petrel and is essentially dark brown in all plumages, except for the white rump and flanks.

This species breeds on the Antarctic coastlines and nearby islands such as the South Shetland Islands during the summer of the southern hemisphere. It spends the rest of the year at sea, and moves into the northern oceans in
the southern hemisphere's winter. It is much more common in the north Atlantic than the Pacific.

At 40 g on average, it is the smallest warm-blooded animal that breeds in the Antarctic region. It nests in colonies close to the sea in rock crevices or small burrows in soft earth and lays a single white egg.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilson's_Storm_Petrel

Dolphin gull, Larus scoresbii,
Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego..
Kelp gull (Larus dominicanus),
Grytviken, Syd Georgia.

A 1st year bird with its grey back, brown wings greyish hood and dull pink bill with dark tip.
Photo: © http://www.arthurgrosset.com

The Dolphin Gull,
Leucophaeus scoresbii, sometimes erroneously called the Red-billed Gull (a somewhat
similar but unrelated species from New Zealand), is a gull native to southern Chile and Argentina, and the Falkland Islands. It is a coastal bird inhabiting rocky, muddy and sandy shores and is often found around seabird colonies. They have grayish feathers, and the feathers on their wings are a darker shade. They lay 2 to 3 eggs in December. Dolphin Gulls eat many things from mussels to carrion.

The modern scientific name Leucophaeus scoresbii, together with the obsolete common name "Scoresby's Gull", commemorates the English explorer William Scoresby (1789–1857

It is found at the coast where it nests on cliffs and beaches. Often seen near sewage outlets. It is a stunning bird
with its grey body contrasting with dark mantle and wings and a bright red on the legs and a very heavy looking bill.

The Kelp Gull, Larus dominicanus, also known as the Dominican Gull, breeds on coasts and islands through much of the southern hemisphere. The race L. d. vetula occurs around southern Africa, and nominate L. d. dominicanus is the subspecies found around South America, parts of Australia (where it overlaps with Pacific Gull), and New Zealand (where it is known as the Southern Black-backed Gull or by its Maori name Karoro). The specific name comes from the Dominican order of friars who wore black and white habits.[1] It is the southern equivalent of the northern hemisphere's Lesser Black-backed Gull, but averages slightly larger than that species at 54–65 cm in total length and 128–142 cm in wingspan. This is a mainly coastal gull.

A kelp gull nest with two eggs, Patagonia, Argentina
The nest is a shallow depression on the ground lined with vegetation and feathers. The female usually lays 2 or 3 eggs. Both parents feed the young birds.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kelp_Gull

Kelp gull,
Hope Bay, Antarctric Peninsula.
Gulls are not very common in the Southern Ocean. Only kelp gull makes it all the way to the Antarctic Peninsula (and even winters there). Two smaller species occur on Tierra del Fuego and the Falklands. They eat all they can find or catch, although kelp gull is partial to limpets. Kelp gull population and range are growing; vagrant birds now show up in North America every few years
Kelp gull with chicks,
Elsehul, South Georgia

South American terns, Sterna hirundinacea,
Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego.
Antarctic tern, Sterna. vittata,
Grytviken, South Georgia.

Sterna hirundinacea, Falkland Islands

The South American Tern
, Sterna hirundinacea, is a species of tern found in coastal regions of southern S. America,
including the Falkland Islands, ranging north to Peru (Pacific coast) and Brazil (Atlantic coast).
It is generally the commonest tern in its range. It closely resembles the smaller, highly migratory Common Tern
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_American_Tern

Immature Antarctic tern,
Sterna paradisaea,
Unlike gulls, terns feed almost exclusively on fish and krill. South American tern breeds on Tierra del Fuego and the Falklands; Antarctic tern - on islands further south. They fiercely protect their nest, attacking trespassing people. Very similar Arctic tern, Sterna paradisaea, comes from the Northern hemisphere during Austral summer. It has the longest migration route of any bird.
Arctic tern, Sterna. paradisaea, off South Georgia

Brown skua,
Stercorarius antarctica,
Falkland Is.
Brown skua chasing a sooty shearwater, Puffinus griseus.
The skua tried to rob the shearwater of a fish
it had caught, but the shearwater kept diving every time the skua
was about to kick it. After two or three minutes, the skua gave up the chase.
Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego.
South Polar skua
Catharacta maccormicki
, Hope Bay,
Antarctic Peninsula..

Antarctic skua. February 12, 2008

Courtesy: National Science Foundation

The Brown Skua
, Stercorarius antarcticus, also known as the Antarctic Skua, Southern Great Skua,
Southern Skua, or Hakoakoa (Maori), is a large seabird that breeds in the subantarctic and Antarctic zones and moves further north when not breeding.

Its taxonomy is highly complex and a matter of dispute, with some splitting it into two or three species:
Falkland Skua, Stercorarius antarcticus,
Tristan Skua, Stercorarius hamiltoni,
Subantarctic Skua, Stercorarius. lönnbergi.
To further confuse, it hybridizes with both the South Polar and Chilean Skuas, and the entire group have been considered subspecies of the Great Skua, a species otherwise restricted to the Northern Hemisphere.
It feeds on fish (often via kleptoparasitism), small mammals, scraps, chicks, eggs and carrion.

This is the heaviest species of skua and rivals the largest gulls as the heaviest species in the shorebird order
although not in length or wingspan. It is 52–64 cm (20–25 in) in length, 126–160 cm (50–63 in) in wingspan
and has a body mass of 1.2–2.13 kg (2.6–4.7 lb).[1][2
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_Skua

South Polar Skua
Photo: Samuel Blanc. http://www.sblanc.com

The South Polar Skua, Stercorarius maccormicki, is a large seabird in the skua family Stercorariidae.
An older name for the bird is MacCormick’s Skua, after explorer and naval surgeon Robert McCormick,
who first collected the type specimen.

This species and the other large southern hemisphere skuas, together with Great Skua, are sometimes placed
in a separate genus Catharacta.

The South Polar Skua is a large bird that measures approximately 53 centimetres (21 in) in length.
It breeds on Antarctic coasts, usually laying two eggs in November and December.
Like other skuas, it will fly at the head of a human or other intruder approaching its nest.
It is a migrant, wintering at sea in the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans.
In the eastern North Atlantic it is replaced by the Great Skua.

The South Polar Skua eats mainly fish, which it often obtains by robbing gulls, terns and even gannets of their catches. It will also directly attack and kill other seabirds and their chicks. It also eats scraps and carrion.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Polar_Skua

Sooty Shearwater, Puffinus griseus
Photo: Michael "Mike" L. Baird

Sooty Shearwaters,
Puffinus griseus, are 40–51 cm in length with a 94–110 cm wingspan. It has the typically "shearing" flight of the genus, dipping from side to side on stiff wings with few wing beats, the wingtips almost touching the water. Its flight is powerful and direct, with wings held stiff and straight, giving the impression of a
very small albatross.

This shearwater is identifiable by its dark plumage which is responsible for its name. In poor viewing conditions it looks all black, but in good light it shows as dark chocolate-brown a silvery strip along the center of the underwing.

In the Atlantic, it is the only such bird, whereas in the Pacific part of its range, other all-dark large shearwaters
are found. Particularly the Short-tailed Shearwater is almost impossible to tell apart from the present species
at a distance.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sooty_Shearwater

Brown skua feeding on a dead
king penguin,
Grytviken, South Georgia.

Skuas are the bad boys of the Scotia Sea islands. They feed on carrion, garbage, fish, eggs and chicks of other birds, and also rob fishing seabirds of their catch. Of the three local species, brown skua (with two subspecies, northern and southern) is the most common, widespread, and predatory. Three smaller species come from the Arctic to winter, but are seldom seen.
Chilean skua (Stercorarius/
and imperial shags,
Phalacrocorax atriceps ,
Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego.


Chilean Skua, Catharacta chilensis, near Ushuaia, Argentina. 6 January 2004
Photo belongs to Arthur Chapman

The Chilean Skua, Stercorarius chilensis also Catharacta chilensis, is a large predatory seabird, which
breeds in Argentina and Chile, but ranges as far north as Brazil and Peru when not breeding. A relatively distinctive skua, it has a dark cap that contrasts with its cinnamon throat and lower face. Hybrids with the Brown Skua are known from southern Argentina.

While nowhere near the size of birds such as the Wandering Albatross, the Chilean Skua makes up for it in sheer aggression towards other birds. Chilean Skuas have been known to fly in large groups and hunt other seabirds.
They also eat offal, rodents and carrion.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chilean_Skua

Part 4: Even more seabirds

Back to part 2.

All pictures, unless otherwise stated, Copyright © Vladimir Dinets


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