Our Beautiful World

Ducks, Anatoidea

Ducks - or no Ducks? Is that a question to day? Read more here
Migrating birds and the risks. Read more here

Working on those pages, and believe me - it's going to take time.

Superorder: Anseriformes Worldwide; 150 species.
clade: Anseres
Superfamily: Anatoidea

Anhimidae: screamers
Anatidae - ducks, geese and swans
Podicipedidae - grebes

Family Anatidae

Anatidae is the biological family of birds that includes ducks, geese and swans. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution, occurring
on all the world's continents except Antarctica and on most of the world's islands and island groups. These are birds that can swim,
float on the water surface, and in some cases dive in at least shallow water.The family contains around 146 species in 40 genera.
They are generally herbivorous, and are monogamous breeders. A number of species undertake annual migrations.
A few species have been domesticated for agriculture, and many others are hunted for food and recreation.
Five species have become extinct since 1600, and many more are threatened with extinction.
(The Magpie Goose is no longer[when?] considered to be part of the Anatidae, but is placed in its own family Anseranatidae.)

Family Anatidae

Subfamily: Dendrocygninae (One pantropical genus, of distinctive long-legged goose-like birds)
Genus: Dendrocygna, whistling ducks (9 living species)

Subfamily: Thalassorninae (One genus in Africa, most closely related to the subfamily Dendrocygninae,
                  though also showing convergent similarities to the subfamily Oxyurinae)
Genus: Thalassornis, White-backed Duck

Subfamily: Anserinae, swans and geese
Genus: Anser, grey geese (7 species)
Genus: Chen, white geese (3 species, sometimes included in Anser)
Genus: Branta, black geese (8 living species)

Subfamily: Stictonettinae (One genus in Australia, formerly included in the Oxyurinae, but with anatomy                 suggesting a distinct ancient lineage perhaps closest to the Anserinae, especially Cape Barren Goose) Genus: Stictonetta, Freckled Duck

Subfamily: Plectropterinae
(1 genus in Africa, formerly incl. in "perching ducks", but closer to Tadorninae)
Genus: Plectropterus, Spur-winged Goose

Subfamily: Tadorninae – shelducks and sheldgeese 2)
Genus: Tadorna
- shelducks (7 species, one probably extinct) – possibly paraphyletic
Genus: Chloephaga
- sheldgeese
Genus: Salvadorina, Salvadori's Teal
Genus: Centrornis, Madagascar Sheldgoose (prehistoric, tentatively placed here)
Genus: Alopochen, Egyptian Goose and Mascarene Shelducks (1 living species, 2 extinct)
Genus:Neochen, Orinoco Goose
Genus: Chloephaga, sheldgeese (5 species)
Genus: Hymenolaimus, Blue Duck
Genus: Merganetta, Torrent Duck

Subfamily: Anatinae, dabbling ducks and moa-nalos 3)
Genus: Anas: wigeons, gadwalls, teals, pintails, mallards, shovelers, etc. (40–50 living species) – paraphyletic
Genus:Lophonetta, Crested Duck
Genus:Speculanas, Bronze-winged Duck
Genus:Amazonetta, Brazilian Teal

Subfamily: Aythyinae, diving ducks (Some 15 species of diving ducks, of worldwide distribution) 4)
Genus: Netta, Red-crested Pochard and allies (4 species, one probably extinct)
Genus: Aythya, pochards, scaups, etc. (12 species)

Subfamily: Merginae, eiders, scoters, sawbills and other sea-ducks
(There are 9 extant genera and some 20 living species; most of this group occur in the Northern Hemisphere,
                but a  few mergansers in the Southern Hemisphere)
Genus:Polysticta, Steller's Eider
Genus:Somateria, eiders (3 species)
Genus:Histrionicus, Harlequin Duck (includes Ocyplonessa)
Genus:Melanitta, scoters (3 species)
Genus:Clangula, Long-tailed Duck (1 species)
Genus:Bucephala, goldeneyes (3 species)
Genus:Mergellus, Smew
Genus:Lophodytes, Hooded Merganser
Genus:Mergus, mergansers (5 living species, one extinct).

Subfamily: Oxyurinae, stiff-tail ducks (Small group of 4 genera, (3 monotypic), with 7–8 living species)
Genus: Oxyura, stiff-tailed ducks (5 living species)
Genus: Nomonyx, Masked Duck
Genus: Musk Ducks (1 living species, provisionally placed here)
Genus: Heteronetta, Black-headed Duck

Unresolved The largest degree of uncertainty concerns whether a number of genera are closer to the
              shelducks or to the dabbling ducks. See also the monotypic subfamilies above, and the "perching ducks"
Genus: Coscoroba, Coscoroba Swan – Anserinae or same subfamily as Cereopsis?
Genus:Cereopsis, Cape Barren Goose – Anserinae, Tadorninae, or own subfamily?
Genus:Cnemiornis, New Zealand geese (prehistoric) – as Cereopsis
Genus:Malacorhynchus, Pink-eared ducks (1 living species) – Tadorninae, Oxyurinae or Dendrocheninae?
Genus:Sarkidiornis, Comb Duck – Tadorninae or closer to dabbling ducks?
Genus:Tachyeres, steamer ducks (4 species) – Tadorninae or closer to dabbling ducks?
Genus:Cyanochen, Blue-winged Goose – Tadorninae or more distant clade?
Genus:Nettapus, pygmy geese (3 species) – Anatinae or part of Southern Hemisphere radiation?
Genus:Pteronetta, Hartlaub's Duck – traditionally dabbling ducks, but may be closer to Cyanochen
Genus:Cairina, Muscovy Duck and White-winged Duck (2 species) – traditionally dabbling ducks, but may be                paraphyletic, with one species in Tadorninae and the other closer to diving ducks
Genus:Aix, Mandarin Duck and Wood Duck (2 species) – dabbling ducks or Tadorninae?
Genus:Callonetta, Ringed Teal – dabbling ducks or Tadorninae?
Genus:Chenonetta, Maned Duck (1 living species) – dabbling ducks or Tadorninae? Includes Euryanas.
Genus:Marmaronetta, Marbled Duck – Formerly dabbling ducks; actually a diving duck or a distinct subfamily

Family Anhimidae

Genus: Anhima cornuta, Horned Screamer,
Genus: Chauna torquata, Southern Screamer or Crested Screamer,
Genus: Chauna chavaria, Northern Screamer or Black-necked Screamer,

Family Podicipedidae
Genus: Aechmophorus
Genus: Podiceps
Genus: Podilymbus
Genus: Poliocephalus
Genus: Rollandia
Genus: Tachybaptus

  1. Three to seven extant genera with 25–30 living species, mainly cool temperate Northern Hemisphere but
    also some Southern Hemisphere species, with the swans in one genus [two genera in some treatments],
    and the geese in three genera [two genera in some treatments]. Some other species are sometimes placed
    herein, but seem somewhat more distinct [see below]) Cygnus, true swans (7 species, 4 sometimes
    separated in Olor)

  2. This group of larger, often semi-terrestrial waterfowl can be seen as intermediate between Anserinae and
    Anatinae. The 1986 revision has resulted in the inclusion of 10 extant genera with about two dozen living
    species [one probably extinct] in this subfamily, mostly from the Southern Hemisphere but a few in the
    Northern Hemisphere, but the affiliations of several presumed tadornine genera has later been questioned
    and the group in the traditional lineup is likely to be paraphyletic

  3. The dabbling duck group, of worldwide distribution, were previously restricted to just one or two genera,
    but had been extended to include 8 extant genera and about 55 living species, including several genera
    formerly known as the "perching ducks"; mtDNA on the other hand confirms that the genus Anas is over-
    lumped and casts doubt on the diving duck affiliations of several genera [see below]. The moa-nalos, of
    which 4 species in 3 genera are known to date, are a peculiar group of flightless, extinct Anatidae from the
    Hawaiian Islands. Gigantic in size and with massive bills, they were believed to be geese, but have been
    shown to be actually very closely related to mallard. They evolved filling the ecological niche of turtles,
    ungulates and other megaherbivores.)

  4. The 1986 morphological analysis suggested that the probably extinct Pink-headed Duck of India, previously
    treated separately in Rhodonessa, should be placed in Netta, but this has been questioned. Furthermore,
    while morphologically close to dabbling ducks, the mtDNA data indicates that a treatment as distinct
    subfamily is indeed correct, with the Tadorninae being actually closer to dabbling ducks than the diving
    ducks are

Family Podicipedidae - Grebes

A grebe is a member of the Podicipediformes order, a widely distributed order of freshwater diving birds, some of which visit the
sea when migrating and in winter. This order contains only a single family, the Podicipedidae, containing 22 species in 6 extant genera.

Grebes are small to medium-large in size, have lobed toes, and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, although they can
run for a short distance, they are prone to falling over, since they have their feet placed far back on the body.

Grebes have narrow wings, and some species are reluctant to fly; indeed, two South American species are completely flightless.
They respond to danger by diving rather than flying, and are in any case much less wary than ducks. Extant species range in size
from the Least Grebe, at 120 grams and 23.5 cm, to the Great Grebe, at 1.7 kg and 71 cm .

However, the North American and Eurasian species are all, of necessity, migratory over much or all of their ranges,
and those species that winter at sea are also seen regularly in flight. Even the small freshwater Pied-billed Grebe of North America
has occurred as a transatlantic vagrant to Europe on more than 30 occasions. [4]

Family Podicipedidae
Genus: Aechmophorus

Genus: Podiceps
Genus: Podilymbus (extinct)
Genus: Poliocephalus
Genus: Rollandia - South America
Genus: Tachybaptus

The following grebes are shown on three different pages.

Genus Tachybaptus
Great Crested Grebe, Podiceps cristatus, , No: Toppdykker (main page for Tachybaptus)
Little Grebe or Dabchick, Tachybaptus ruficollis, No: Dvergdykker,
Australasian Grebe, Tachybaptus novaehollandiae, No: Australdvergdykker
Madagascar Grebe, Tachybaptus pelzelnii, No: Madagaskardykker
Alaotra Grebe, Tachybaptus rufolavatus, No: Alaotradykker — extinct (2010)
Least Grebe, Tachybaptus dominicus, No: Pygmédykker

Titicaca Flightless Grebe, Rollandia microptera, No: Titicacadykker, (main page)
Genus Podilymbus
Pied-billed Grebe, Podilymbus podiceps, No: Ringnebbdykker
Atitlán Grebe, Podilymbus gigas,No: Atitlandykker,— extinct (1989)
Genus Rollandia
White-tufted Grebe, Rollandia rolland, No: Hvitøredykker
Titicaca Flightless Grebe, Rollandia microptera, No: Titicacadykker*
Genus Aechmophorus
Western Grebe, Aechmophorus occidentalis, No: Svanedykker
Clark's Grebe, Aechmophorus clarkii, No: Gulnebbdykker
Genus Poliocephalus
Hoary-headed Grebe, Poliocephalus poliocephalus, No: Sølvhodedykker
New Zealand Dabchick/Grebe, Poliocephalus rufopectus, No: Maoridykker

Genus Podiceps
Slavonian Grebe or Horned Grebe, Podiceps auritus, No: Horndykker (main page)
Great Crested Grebe, Podiceps cristatus, No: Toppdykker,
Red-necked Grebe,, Podiceps grisegena, No: Gråstrupedykker
Black-necked Grebe or Eared Grebe, Podiceps nigricollis, No: Svarthalsdykker,
Colombian Grebe, Podiceps andinus, No: Colombiadykker, — extinct (1977)
Great Grebe, Podiceps major, Spydnebbdykker
Silvery Grebe, Podiceps occipitalis, No: Sølvdykker,
Junin Flightless Grebe,, Podiceps taczanowskii, No: Junindykker
Hooded Grebe, Podiceps gallardoi, No: Tiaradykker

Subfamily: Aythyinae - Diving Ducks
diving ducks (Some 15 species of diving ducks, of worldwide distribution) 4)
Genus: Netta, Red-crested Pochard and allies (4 species, one probably extinct)
Genus: Aythya, pochards, scaups, etc. (12 species)

The diving ducks, commonly called pochards or scaups, are a category of duck which feed by diving beneath the surface of the water. They are part of the diverse and very large Anatidae family that includes ducks, geese, and swans.

The diving ducks are placed in a distinct subfamily, Aythyinae. The diving ducks are placed as a tribe Aythyini in a subfamily
Anatidae which would encompass all duck-like birds except the whistling-ducks. The seaducks commonly found in coastal
areas, such as the Long-tailed Duck (formerly known in the US as Oldsquaw), scoters, goldeneyes, mergansers, bufflehead
and eiders, are also sometimes colloquially referred to in North America as diving ducks because they also feed by diving;
their subfamily, Merginae is a very distinct one however.

Although the group is cosmopolitan, most members are native to the northern hemisphere, and it includes several of the most
familiar northern hemisphere ducks.

This group of ducks is so named because its members feed mainly by diving, although in fact the Netta species are reluctant
to dive, and feed more like dabbling ducks.

These are gregarious ducks, mainly found on fresh water or on estuaries, though the Greater Scaup becomes marine during the
northern winter. They are strong fliers; their broad, blunt-tipped wings require faster wing-beats than those of many ducks and
they take off with some difficulty. Northern species tend to be migratory; southern species do not migrate though the Hardhead
travels long distances on an irregular basis in response to rainfall. Diving ducks do not walk as well on land as the dabbling ducks;
their legs tend to be placed further back on their bodies to help propel them when underwater.

Genus Aythya
A diving duck which eats seeds, roots, aquatic plants and grasses as well as invertebrates and small fish.
Pochards may also be seen filtering mud on the shoreline.

It is found North of the equator from Iceland and western Europe to central Asia and sw Siberia and western Yakutia.
South of this the range covers Spain and then east through France, Tunisia the Balkans to Kazakhstan and ne China.
Winters farther south in the tropics.

Genus Aythya - pochards, scaups
Aythya ferina, Common Pochard
Aythya valisineria, Canvasback
Aythya americana, Redhead
Aythya collaris, Ring-necked Duck
Aythya nyroca, Hvitøyeand Ferruginous Pochard
Aythya innotata, Madagascar Pochard Alaotraand(thought extinct, found again 2006)
Aythya baeri, Baer's Pochard
Aythya australis, White-eyed Duck
Aythya fuligula, Tufted Duck
Aythya novaeseelandiae, New Zealand Scaup Maoridykkand
Aythya marila, Greater Scaup
Aythya affinis, Lesser Scaup

Genus Netta
Pink-headed Duck, Netta caryophyllacea, Rosenhodeand, - probably extinct (1945?)
Synonyms; Anas caryophyllacea, Fuligula caryophyllacea,
                 Rhodonessa caryophyllacea,  Callichen caryophyllaceum

Red-crested Pochard, Netta rufina, No: Rødhodeand
Rosy-billed Pochard, Netta peposaca, No: Peposacaand
Southern Pochard , Netta erythrophthalma, No: Fløyelsand

Genus Marmaronetta
Marbled Duck Marmaronetta angustirostris

Subfamily: Merginae - Sea Ducks

The seaducks, Merginae, form a subfamily of the duck, goose and swan family of birds, Anatidae. There are twenty
species in ten extant genera.
All but two of the 20 species in this group occupy habitats in far northern latitudes.

As the name implies, most but not all, are essentially marine outside the breeding season. Many species have
developed specialized salt glands to allow them to tolerate salt water, but these have not yet developed in young birds.
Some of the mergansers prefer riverine habitats.

The fish-eating members of this group, such as the mergansers and Smew, have serrated edges to their bills to help
them grip their prey. These are therefore often known as "sawbills". Other seaducks take molluscs or crustaceans
from the sea floor.

Genus Chendytes, the diving-geese.
Genus Polysticta
Genus Somateria, the eiders.
Genus Histrionicus Harlequin Duck, Histrionicus histrionicus
Genus Camptorhynchus, Labrador Duck Camptorhynchus labradorius
Genus Melanitta, the scoters.
   Black Scoter, Melanitta nigra, No: Svartand
Surf Scoter, Melanitta perspicillata, No: Brilleand
White-winged Scoter, Melanitta fusca, No: Sjøorrer

Genus Bucephala, the goldeneyes.
   Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula
   Barrow's Goldeneye Bucephala islandica
   Bufflehead, Bucephala albeola
Genus Clangula, Long-tailed Duck or Oldsquaw, Clangula hyemalis
Genus Mergellus, Smew Mergellus albellus
Genus Lophodytes, Hooded Merganser, Lophodytes cucullatus
Genus Mergus, the typical mergansers.

Genus Somateria & Polysticta

Somateria mollissima Ærfugl Common Eider
Somateria spectabilis Praktærfugl King Eider
Somateria fischeri Brilleærfugl Spectacled Eider
Polysticta stelleri Stellerand Steller's Eider

Genus Mergus, Mergellus and Lophodytes

Mergus is the genus of the typical mergansers, fish-eating ducks in the seaduck subfamily, Merginae. The Hooded Merganser,
often termed Mergus cucullatus, is not of this genus but closely related. The other "aberrant" merganser, the Smew, Mergellus albellus, is phylogenetically closer to goldeneyes, Bucephala.

Although they are seaducks, most of the mergansers prefer riverine habitats, with only the Red-breasted Merganser being
common at sea. These large fish-eaters typically have black-and-white, brown and/or green hues in their plumage, and most have
shomewhat shaggy crests. All have serrated edges to their long and thin bills that help them grip their prey. Along with the Smew
and Hooded Merganser, they are therefore often known as "sawbills". The goldeneyes, on the other hand, feed mainly on
mollusks, and therefore have a more typical duck-bill. They are also classified as "divers" because they go completely under-water
in looking for food. In other traits, however, the genera Mergus, Lophodytes, Mergellus, and Bucephala are very similar;
uniquely among all Anseriformes, they do not have notches at the hind margin of their sternum, but holes surrounded by bone.

Genus Mergus
Mergus octosetaceus, Brazilian Merganser, No:
Mergus serrator, Red-breasted Merganser
, No: Siland
Mergus merganser, Common Merganser
, No: Laksand
Mergus squamatus, Scaly-sided Merganser, No: Skjellfiskand
Mergus australis Auckland Islands Merganser
, No: Aucklandfiskand
Genus Mergellus
Mergellus albellus, Smew, No: Lappfiskand
Genus Lophodytes
Lophodytes cucullatus, Hooded Merganser, No: Hjelmfiskand (main page)

Subfamily: Oxyurinae - Stiff-tailed ducks
stiff-tail ducks (Small group of 4 genera, (3 monotypic), with 7–8 living species)

Oxyurinae is a subfamily of the duck, goose and swan family of birds, Anatidae. It has been subject of considerable debate about
its validity and circumscription. Most of its members have long stiff tail feathers which are erected when the bird is at rest, and
relatively large swollen bills. Though their relationships are still enigmatic, they appear to be closer to swans and true geese rather
than to the typical ducks. The highest diversity is found in the warmer parts of the Americas, but at least one species occurs in a
major part of the world.

Their habitus resembles a freshwater diving duck, particularly when moving on dry land. Their legs are set far back, making them
awkward walkers, so they rarely leave the water. When at rest, the tails are a notable difference as per above, and in the water
they often swim very deep-set. Their unusual courtship displays involve drumming noises from inflatable throat-sacs, head throwing,
and erecting short crests. Most display singly with a very elaborate and peculiar display, but Musk Ducks congregate at leks and
have a more limited display.

Genus Oxyura - Stiff-tailed Ducks

The stiff-tailed ducks constitute a unique section of the Anatidae that is possibly the most isolated of all the tribes with the
exception of the Anseranatini. There are eight species which almost certainly belong in the group, plus one more that is only
very tentatively included. The tribe is of worldwide occurrence. Seven of the species have long, narrow, and stiffened tail
feathers that function as rudders in underwater swimming, at which all species are very adept.

These species also have a dense and shiny body plumage much like that of grebes, but lack metallic coloration altogether.
The typical species have short, thick necks with loose-fitting skin that can be expanded through the inflation of the esophagus
or special air sacs. All species have large feet and their legs are placed well toward the rear, which results in a poor walking ability.

Oxyura jamaicensis Stivhaleand Ruddy Duck
Oxyura ferruginea Andesand Andean Duck
Oxyura leucocephala Hvithodeand White-headed Duck
Oxyura maccoa Kafferand Maccoa Duck
Oxyura vittata Trommeand Lake Duck / Argentine Ruddy Duck
Oxyura australis Blånebband Blue-billed Duck
Oxyura dominica, Masked Duck

Read more about Oxyura-genus here: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu

Heteronetta atricapilla Gjøkand Black-headed Duck DK:Snylteand
Nomonyx dominica Maskeand Masked Duck DK:Bisamand
Biziura lobata Pungand Musk Duck
Thalassornis leuconotus Hvitryggand White-backed Duck ?

Subfamily Anatinae - dabbling ducks

The Anatinae is a subfamily of the family Anatidae (swans, geese and ducks). Its surviving members are the dabbling ducks,
which feed mainly at the surface rather than by diving. The other members of the Anatinae are the extinct moa-nalo, a young but
highly apomorphic lineage derived from the dabbling ducks.

There has been much debate about the dabbling ducks' systematical status and what ducks belong to the Anatinae. As understood here, the subfamily contains only the dabbling ducks and their close relatives, the extinct moa-nalos. Alternatively, the Anatinae are
considered to include most "ducks" and the dabbling ducks form a tribe Anatini within these. The classification as presented here
more appropriately reflects the remaining uncertainty about the interrelationships of the major lineages of Anatidae (waterfowl).
Do you still follow???

The following genera are (with one exception) unequivocal dabbling ducks:
Genus Amazonetta – status not fully resolved, most likely a dabbling duck
Genus Anas – probably paraphyletic:
Blue-winged ducks/shovelers and allies (polyphyletic?
Mallard group
Genus Lophonetta – formerly Anas
Genus Speculanas – formerly Anas
Genus Nettapus - Pygmy geese
Subgenus Nettion – teals (paraphyletic)

Genus Nettapus - Pygmy geese

The pygmy geese are a group of very small "perching ducks" in the genus Nettapus which breed in the Old World tropics.
They are the smallest of all wildfowl. As the "perching ducks" are a paraphyletic group, they need to be placed elsewhere.
The initially assumed relationship with the dabbling duck subfamily Anatinae has been questioned.

Green Pygmy-goose, Nettapus pulchellus, No: Grønndvergand
     northern Australia and southern New Guinea.
Cotton Pygmy-goose ,Nettapus coromandelianus, No: Beltedvergand
    Southeast Asia.
African Pygmy-goose, Nettapus auritus, No: Praktdvergand sub-Saharan Africa.

Their habitat is still freshwater lakes, where these neat ducks feed on seeds and other vegetation, especially water lilies.
Pygmy geese have short bills, rounded heads and short legs. They nest in tree holes.

Subgenus: Anas - dabbling ducks - mallards

Anas is a genus of dabbling ducks. It includes mallards, wigeons, teals, pintails and shovelers in a number of subgenera.
Some authorities prefer to elevate the subgenera to genus rank.

Subgenus Anas – mallard and relatives
Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos, No: Stokkand (also common name for Mallards)
Domestic duck, Anas domesticus sometimes Anas platyrhynchos domesticus
Gadwall, Anas strepera, No: Snadderand (eu-as-am) Subgenus Chaulelasmus
   Coues' Gadwall or Washington Island Gadwall, Anas strepera couesi – extinct (late 19th cent.)
Spot-billed Duck, Anas poecilorhyncha, No: Flekknebband (Indian) (as)
Philippine Duck, Anas luzonica, No: Filippinerand (as)
Falcated Duck, Anas falcata, No: Sibirand (as) Subgenus Eunetta
Garganey, Anas querquedula, No: Knekkand (eu-as)
     Probable genus Querquedula (may include Punanetta)
Baikal Teal, Bimaculate Duck, or Squawk Duck, Anas formosa, No: Gulkinnand, (as)

     Probable genus Sibirionetta, (formerly in Nettion)
Yellow-billed Duck, Anas undulata, No: Gulnebband (af)
Meller's Duck, Anas melleri, No: Madagaskarand (af )
Red-billed Duck, Anas erythrorhyncha, No: Rødnebband (af) Subgenus Dafila – pintails
African Black Duck, Anas sparsa, No: Elveand (af) Subgenus Melananas

American clade
Mottled Duck, Anas fulvigula, No: Golfand (na)
   Florida Duck, Anas fulvigula fulvigula – sometimes included in Anas platyrhynchos
American Black Duck, Anas rubripes, No: Rødfotand (am)
Spectacled Duck, Anas specularis, No: Bronsevingeand (sa) now Spleculanas specularis
Crested Duck, Anas specularioides, No: Duskand (sa) now Lophonetta specularioides
see below

Pacific clade – the moa-nalos might be derived from this group.
   Mariana Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos oustaleti – considered a subspecies of Anas superciliosa;     extinct (1981)
Philippine Duck, Anas luzonica

Laysan Duck, Anas laysanensis, No: Laysanand (oc) sometimes included in Anas platyrhynchos
Hawaiian Duck, Anas wyvilliana, No: Hawaiiand (oc) – sometimes included in Anas platyrhynchos
Pacific Black Duck, Anas superciliosa, No: Stripeand (oc)

Pintails... Subgenus Dafila – pintails
Northern Pintail, Anas acuta, No: Stjertand also picture here
Eaton's Pintail, Anas eatoni, No:
   Kerguelen Islands Pintail, Anas eatoni eatoni,
   Crozet Islands Pintail, Anas eatoni drygalskii

Yellow-billed Pintail,Anas georgica, No: Spisshaleand
   Chilean Pintail, Anas georgica spinicauda,  
    Niceforo's Pintail, Anas georgica niceforoi,  – extinct (1950s)

White-cheeked Pintail, Anas bahamensis, No: Hvitkinnand

Red-billed Teal, Anas erythrorhyncha, (formerly in Poecilonetta)
Cape Teal, Anas capensis, (formerly in Nettion)

Possible genus Mareca – wigeons (may include Chaulelasmus and Eunetta)
Eurasian Wigeon, Anas penelope, No: Brunnakke (eu-as)
American Wigeon, Anas americana, No: Amerikablesand (am)
Chiloe Wigeon, Anas sibilatrix, No: Sørblesand (sa)
Amsterdam Island Wigeon, Anas marecula, No: Amsterdamblesand

Probable genus Spatula – blue-winged ducks/shovelers and allies (polyphyletic?
Blue-winged Teal, Anas discors, Probable genus Spatula
Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera
, Probable genus Spatula
Northern Shoveler, Anas clypeata, No: Skjeand, Probable genus Spatula
Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera,
      Borrero's Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera borreroi, – possibly extinct (late 20th century?)
Probable genus Spatula
Red Shoveler, Anas platalea, No: Prikkskjeand, Probable genus Spatula

Cape Shoveler, Anas smithii, No: Kappskjeand, Probable genus Spatula
Australian Shoveler, Australasian Shoveler, Anas rhynchotis, No: Sigdskjeand
      Probable genus Spatula

Formerly placed in Anas:
Spectacled Duck, Bronze-winged Duck, Anas specularis, No: Bronsevingeand (sa)
   now Spleculanas specularis
Crested Duck, Anas specularioides, No: Duskand (sa) now Lophonetta specularioides

other ducks , geographically according to continent


Teal (english) is a medium bluegreen colour-.
The name comes from the Eurasian Teal, which has that colour around its eyes.

Euroasian and African Teal-ducks  

Indian Ocean clade (sometimes subgenus Virago)

Eurasian Teal, Common Teal, Anas crecca, No: Krikkand eu-as
Marbled Teal, Marmaronetta angustirostris
, No: Marmorand eu-as

Andaman Teal, Anas albogularis, No: Hvitstrupekrikkand as
formerly included in Anas gibberifrons
Sunda Teal, Anas gibberifrons, No: Gråkrikkand indo
sometimes subgenus Virago
Cape Teal, Anas capensis, No: Kappand af
Bernier's Teal, Anas bernieri, No: Gasserkrikkand af
sometimes subgenus Virago
Hottentot Teal, Anas hottentota, No: Hottentottand af
Probable genus Punanetta
Grey Teal, Anas gracilis – formerly included in Anas gibberifrons see Oceanean/Pacific
Chestnut Teal, Anas castanea
see Oceanean/Pacific

American Teal-ducks  

Blue-winged Teal, Anas discors, No: Blåvingeand  na
Green-winged Teal, Anas carolinensis, No:  Amerikakrikkand  am
Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera, No: Kaneland 
Speckled Teal, Yellow-billed Teal, Anas flavirostris, No: Gulnebbkrikkand  sa

Puna Teal, Anas puna, No:  Punaand  sa
Silver Teal, Anas versicolor, No:   Sølvand  sa

Ringed Teal, Callonetta leucophrys, No:  Prydand  sa
Brazilian Teal, Amazonetta brasiliensis, No: Brasiland   sa
Andean Teal, Anas andinum

Oceanean/Pacific Teal-ducks  
New Zealand clade (Placement unresolved)
Grey Teal, Anas gracilis Nomadeand oc
Chestnut Teal, Anas castanea Kastanjeand oc
Auckland IslandsTeal, Anas aucklandica Bronseand Auckland IslandsTeal oc
Campbell Islands Teal, Anas nesiotis Campbelland oc
formerly included in Anas aucklandica
Brown Teal, Anas chlorotis Kobberand nz
Salvadori's Teal, Salvadorina waigiuensis Tigerand oc
Blue Duck, Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos, Kaskadeand, oc
Torrent Duck, Merganetta armata, Strømand, sa

Subfamily: Tadorninae - Shelduck - Sheldgoose

The Tadorninae is the shelduck-sheldgoose subfamily of the Anatidae, the biological family that includes the ducks and most
duck-like waterfowl such as the geese and swans.

This group is largely tropical or Southern Hemisphere in distribution, with only two species, the Common Shelduck and the
Ruddy Shelduck breeding in northern temperate regions, though the Crested Shelduck was also a northern species.

Most of these species have a distinctive plumage, but there is no pattern as to whether the sexes are alike, even within a single genus.

Subfamily Tadorninae
Unequivocally placed in this group:
Genus Tadorna: shelducks (Europe, Africa, Australasia; 7 species) - possibly paraphyletic
Genus Salvadorina: (New Guinea) - formerly in Anatidae and "perching ducks"
   Salvadori's Teal, Salvadorina waigiuensis
Genus Alopochen: shelducks (Africa)  1 living species,
   Egyptian Goose, Alopochen aegyptiacus
Genus Neochen: (South America)
   Orinoco Goose, Neochen jubata
Genus Chloephaga: sheldgeese (South America; 5 species)
Genus Hymenolaimus: (New Zealand) - formerly in "perching ducks"
   Blue Duck, Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos
Genus Merganetta: (Andes mountains, South America) - formerly in "perching ducks"
   Torrent Duck, Marganetta armata

Provisionally placed in this group:
Genus Malacorhynchus: (Australia; 1 living species) - may be closer to Oxyurinae
   Pink-eared Duck, Malacorhynchus membranaceus
Genus Sarkidiornis: (South America, Africa, India) - formerly in "perching ducks"; may belong into Anatinae
   Knob-billed Duck, Sarkidiornis melanotos
Genus Cyanochen: Blue-winged Goose (Ethiopia) - may belong into distinct subfamily
   Blue-winged Goose, Cyanochen cyanoptera
Genus Tachyeres: steamer ducks (South America; 4 species) - may belong into Anatinae

May belong into Tadorninae, currently placed elsewhere:

Genus Aix: (East Asia and North America)
   Mandarin Duck, Aix galericulata (East Asia)
   Wood Duck, Aix sponsa (North America)
Genus Cairina, (tropical America; genus Cairina may be paraphyletic)
   Muscovy Duck, Cairina moschata
Genus Cereopsis: (Australia)
   Cape Barren Goose, Cereopsis novaehollandiae
Genus Callonetta: Ringed Teal (South America)
   Ringed Teal, Callonetta leucophrys
Genus Chenonetta: (Australia)
   Maned Duck, Chenonetta jubata

Genus Tadorna - shelducks

The shelducks, genus Tadorna, are a group of large birds in the Tadorninae subfamily of the Anatidae,
the biological family that includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl such as the geese and swans.

The shelducks are a group of larger often semi-terrestrial waterfowl, which can be seen as intermediate between
geese (Anserinae) and ducks. They are mid-sized (some 50–60 cm) Old World waterfowl.

The sexes are colored slightly different in most species, and all have a characteristic upperwing coloration in flight:
the tertiary remiges form a green speculum, the secondaries and primaries are black, and the coverts (forewing)
are white. Their diet consists of small shore animals (winkles, crabs etc.) as well as grasses and other plants.

They were originally known as "sheldrakes", this remained the most common name until the late 19th century.
The word is still sometimes used to refer to a male shelduck and can also occasionally refer to the Canvasback (Aythya valisineria) of North America.

Tadorna tadorna, Common Shelduck, Gravand (Main page this group)
Tadorna ferruginea, Ruddy Shelduck, Rustand
Tadorna cana, South African Shelduck, Cape Shelduck, Kapprustand
Tadorna tadornoides, Australian Shelduck, Praktrustand
Tadorna variegata, Paradise Shelduck, Maorirustand
Tadorna cristata, Crested Shelduck
, Koreagravand -
possibly extinct (late 20th century?)
Tadorna radjah, Radjah Shelduck, Beltegravand

unknown group

Aix galericulata Mandarinand Mandarin Duck (Main page this group)
Aix sponsa Brudeand Wood Duck na
Pteronetta hartlaubii Mahogniand Hartlaub's Duck af
Sarkidiornis melanotos Kamand Comb Duck, Knob-billed Duck af
Cairina moschata Knoppand (domestisert: moskusand) Muscovy Duck am
Cairina scutulata Jungeland White-winged Duck as
Stictonetta naevosa Fregneand Freckled Duck oc

Genus: Tachyeres - steamer ducks

The steamer ducks are a genus, Tachyeres, of ducks in the family Anatidae. All of the four species occur in South America,
and all except the Flying Steamer Duck are flightless; even this one species capable of flight rarely takes to the air.
The genus name Tachyeres, "having fast oars" or "fast rower", comes from Ancient Greek "fast" + "I row (as with oars)".
The common name "steamer ducks" derives because, when swimming fast, they flap their wings into the water as well as using their feet, creating an effect like a paddle steamer.

They are usually placed in the shelduck subfamily Tadorninae, but DNA analyses indicate they rather belongs into a distinct clade of aberrant South American dabbling ducks, which also includes the Brazilian, the Crested, and the Bronze-winged Ducks.

Tachyeres pteneres Chileskovleand Flightless Steamerduck scotia4
Tachyeres leucocephalus Hvithodeskovleand White-headed Steamerduck scotia
Tachyeres brachypterus Falklandsskovleand Falkland Steamerduck
Tachyeres patachonicus Patagoniaskovleand Flying Steamerduck andes4

Genus Chloephaga - Sheldgoose

Sheldgoose, alle innen en andestamme i gruppen Tadornini, (se Gravand), famailien Anatidae (orden Anseriformes).
De mindre medlemmer av stammen kalles shelducks. Sheldgeese finnes i tropiske og subtropiske regioner verden over.
De er små-nebbet og heller langbented, med opprist holdning, none har benete sporer - som fungerer som våpen - ved vingene.
De er ikke virkelige gjess, selv om de ligner dem i noen anatomiske deler.

Andean Goose, Chloephaga melanoptera, No: Andesgås
Upland Goose or Magellan Goose, Chloephaga picta, No:
Kelp Goose, Chloephaga hybrida, No:
Ashy-headed Goose, Chloephaga poliocephala, No:
Ruddy-headed Goose, Chloephaga rubidiceps, No:

Cape Barren Goose, Cereopsis novaehollandiae, No: Hønsegås
Egyptian Goose , Alopochen aegyptiaca, No: Niland
Branta not in here
(6 species)

Subfamily: Dendrocygninae -
whistling ducks or tree ducks

The whistling ducks or tree ducks are a subfamily, Dendrocygninae of the duck, goose and swan family of birds, Anatidae.
In other taxonomical approaches, they are either considered a separate family "Dendrocygnidae", or a tribe "Dendrocygnini"
in the goose subfamily Anserinae.

It contains only one genus, Dendrocygna, containing eight living species. These species have a worldwide distribution through the
tropics and subtropics. These ducks have, as their name implies, distinctive whistling calls.

The whistling ducks have long legs and necks, and are very gregarious, flying to and from night-time roosts in large flocks.
Both sexes have the same plumage, and all have a hunched appearance and black underwings in flight.

Genus Dendrocygna

Dendrocygna guttata Perleplystreand Spotted Whistling-Duck
Dendrocygna eytoni Prydplystreand Plumed Whistling-Duck
Dendrocygna bicolor Brunplystreand Fulvous Whistling-Duck
Dendrocygna arcuata Hetteplystreand Wandering Whistling-Duck
Dendrocygna javanica Småplystreand Lesser Whistling-Duck
Dendrocygna viduata Maskeplystreand White-faced Whistling-Duck
Dendrocygna arborea Palmeplystreand West Indian Whistling-Duck

Dendrocygna autumnalis Rødnebbplystreand Black-bellied Whistling-Duck


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