Our Beautiful World


Part 1: Chukotka - overview

Summer night at Cross Bay, Chukotka, Russia

Animals and birds on this page:

Aleutian tern, Sterna aleutica Salmons, Oncorhynchus kisutch etc.
Dusky Thrush, Turdus eunomus Arctic Lemming , Dicrostonyx torquatus
Lapland Bunting, Calcarius lapponicus Siberian salamander, Salamandrella keyserlingii
Pelagic Cormorant, Phalacrocorax pelagicus, Pacific Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus divergens
Long-tailed Duck, Clangula hyemalis Siberian Brown Lemming, Lemmus sibiricus
and a few more in pictures and a few more in pictures

From a rearranged translation of Vladimir Dinets original pages to norwegian, with supplements.

Klikk på flagg for norsk versjon


When Russians say "Siberia", they usually refer only to the inland areas of Asian Russia. All Pacific Coast, from Chukchi Sea
to Ussuriland, is called "The Far East", or RFE. This part is much more interesting for a naturalist or a tourist than Siberia itself.
Thanks to milder climate and less violent glacial history, RFE shelters the most diverse flora and fauna in the country.
Still, the forces of Nature are no less savage here than in Siberia. Typhoons, tsunamis, volcanoes and snowstorms have created
some of the world's most beautiful landscapes. There are only a few big cities in RFE, so in most areas the environment is in
better condition than elsewhere in Asia. In some parts, native peoples are still the only source of environmental impact,
and their numbers are steadily declining, mostly due to assimilation and emigration from tribal lands.

Nest of Aleutian tern
Sterna aleutica,
There are some good biologists in RFE, and hundreds of expeditions have
been working there in the last 150 years. But the Nature of RFE is so
diverse that you can start making small discoveries the moment you step
off the airplane.

In 1991, I found a colony of Aleutian terns within one mile from the city airport
of Anadyr, the capital of Chukotka. This colony was the first ever found that
far north. Climate change results in growing influx of southern species,
especially birds, so now the Aleutian tern has become much more common
and widespread than 16 years ago.

Lapland longspur chick, Anadyr

Aleutian tern, Sterna aleutica

The Aleutian tern breeds only in Alaska and eastern Siberia, nesting coastally in dispersed colonies (North 1997). Their
breeding range extends from southeast Alaska to the western Aleutian Islands and as for north as the Chukchi Sea.
In Russia they breed in the Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk and the Kamchatka Peninsula.

Map from USGS

More text here

The city of Anadyr is situated in the mouth of Anadyr River. The river flows from mysterious and beautiful Elgygytgyn Lake in
an ancient impact crater, then crosses uninhabited mountains and willow-covered plains. Thousands of seals and dolphins
enter the river every summer, chasing salmon and herring. Lapland longspurs, Calcarius lapponicus, and especially
snow buntings, Plectrophenax nivalis, are common town birds.

Recently, they've been joined by dusky thrushes, Turdus eunomus, house martins, Delichon urbica,
and house sparrows, Passer domesticus.

Dusky Thrush, Turdus eunomus

Dusky Thrush. Tsukuba, Japan, 2007
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tsugumi1.JPG

The Dusky Thrush, Turdus eunomus, is a member of the thrush family Turdidae which breeds eastwards
from central Siberia. It is closely related to the more southerly breeding Naumann's Thrush, Turdus. naumanni;
the two have often been regarded as conspecific.

This species breeds in open woodland areas, but unlike Naumann's Thrush, Turdus naumanni, , Dusky Thrush
is more tolerant of mountainous and tundra-edge habitats. This species is strongly migratory, wintering south to southeast Asia, principally in China and neighbouring countries. It is a rare vagrant to western Europe.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dusky_Thrush

Lapland Bunting, Calcarius lapponicus

Lapland Bunting, Calcarius lapponicus
Courtesy: USFWS

© http://www.ecosystema.ru/

The Lapland Longspur or Lapland Bunting, Calcarius lapponicus, is a passerine bird in the longspur family Calcariidae, a group separated by most modern authors from the Fringillidae (Old World finches).

It breeds across Arctic Europe and Asia and in Canada and the northernmost USA. It is migratory, wintering in the Russian steppes, the southern USA, Northern Scandinavian arctic areas and down to coastal Southern Sweden, Denmark and Great Britain.

The Lapland Longspur is a robust bird, with a thick yellow seed-eater's bill. The summer male has a black head
and throat, white eyestripe, chestnut nape, white underparts, and a heavily streaked black-grey back.

It breeds in wet areas with birch or willow, and or bare mountains, and winters on cultivated land or coasts. The bird is often seen close to the tree line, and likes to feed in mixed-species flocks in winter. Its natural food consists of insects
when feeding young, and otherwise seeds. The nest is on the ground. 2-4 eggs are laid.

Lapland Longspur, Plectrophenax nivalis
© www.ecosystema.ru/

Blooming diapensia, Diapensia lapponica ssp. obovata, Belyaka Spit, Chukotka, Russia.

This is a wonderful part of the world. There are 220 bird specimens, 59 mammals, 37 on the ground
and the other 22 are whales and seals. 10 whale specimens are to be seen regularly within the coasts of Chukotka:

Grey whale, Echrichtius robustus,
Bowhead whale, Balaena / Eubalaena mysticetus,
Humpback whale, (1) Megaptera novaeangliae,
Balaenoptera physalis,
Sei whale, (1), Balaenoptera borealis,
Minke whale, (1), Balaenoptera acutorostratus,
Blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus,
Beluga - White whale, (1), Delphinapterus leucas,
Killer whale, (1), (2), Orcinus orca,
Narhval, (1), Monodon monoceros.
Of those the Nar whale, grey whale and Humpback whale the most common visitors.
See our whale page here.

Nearly 80% of the total numbers of Icebear, Urus maritimus,in the Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea
have caves and give birth to the youngsters on Wrangel- or Herald Islands. About half of the world's
Pacific walrus, Odobeus rosmarus divergens, often visits places along the coast.

Summer view of
Bering Sea from
Cape Kriguigun, Chukotka..

Wedged between Bering and Chukchi Seas, Chukotka (Chukchi Peninsula)
is one of the most interesting places in the North.

Ringed seal, Ph. hispida hispida, and bearded seals, off Chukotka.

It has the highest biodiversity in the Arctic, both on land and in the sea.
Some marine mammals occur in huge numbers here.

seal seal
Juvenile ringed seals, Russkaya Koshka Spit, Chukotka

Northern Fur Seal, Callorhinus ursinus, Harbor seal or Common seal, Phoca vitulina, og Spotted seal, Phoca larga,
are common in the souther part of Bering Sea ; Harlekinseal or Ribbon Seal, Phoca fasciata, Ringed seal , Phoca hispida,
Pacific Blue seal (?), Erignathus barbatus (nauticus), and Spotted seal, Phoca largha
are to be found in more northernly waters.
The threatened Steller' Sealion, Eumetopias jubatus, is also still living in the western Bering Sea..

Polar bears, Ursus maritimus, are common on the mainland in winter, but very rare in summer.

Polar bear summering on a
mountaintop, Egvenkinot, Chukotka. .

Polar bear summering on a
mountaintop, Egvenkinot.

Spotted seal, Phoca largha
Larga seal / Spottet seal
Spotted seal, Anadyr.
Spotted seal is very common in southern Chukotka
Spotted seal, Anadyr.
Spotted seal, Anadyr.
The Spotted seal prefers protected bays and river mouths.
Minke whale, Balaenoptera acutrostrata,
Belyaka Spitt

More about the Spotted seals, click here

All those animals, with a few exceptions, are dependent of the fish in Chikotka; In the Bering Sea there are alone more
than 450 fish and crustacean specimens..Here you may find 5 different species of the Pacific Salmon: Oncorhynchus
The Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, is the largest species in the pacific salmon family.
Then come Coho or Silver Salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, Sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka,
Chum or Keta salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, and Pink salmon or Humpback salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha.
Chukotka naturally also have large river- and lake fisheries.

Pacific Salmon. Oncorhynchus is a genus of fish in the family Salmonidae; it contains the Pacific salmons and Pacific trouts.
The name of the genus is derived from the Greek onkos ("hook") and rynchos ("nose"), in reference to the hooked jaws of
males in the mating season (the "kype").

Salmon and trout with ranges generally in waters draining to the Pacific Ocean are members of the genus.
Their range extends from Beringia southwards, roughly to Japan in the west and Mexico to the east. In North America,

Coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch


Drawing of male ocean phase Coho and freshwater phase Coho (silver) salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) (USFG)

The Coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family.
Coho salmon are also known as silver salmon or "silvers". It is the state animal of Chiba, Japan.

During their ocean phase, Coho have silver sides and dark blue backs. During their spawning phase, the jaws and
teeth of the coho become hooked. They develop bright red sides, bluish green heads and backs, dark bellies and
dark spots on their backs after they go in to fresh water.

Ping Salmon , Oncorhynchus gorbuscha
© www.ecosystema.ru/

Drawing of a Pink salmon
Courtesy: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Pink salmon or Humpback salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family.
It is the smallest and most abundant of the Pacific salmon.

In the ocean, pink salmon are bright silver fish. After returning to their spawning stream, their coloring changes to pale grey
on the butt with yellowish white belly (although some turn an overall dull green color).

During their spawning migration, males develop a pronounced humped back, hence their nickname "humpies". Pink salmon average 2.2 kg in weight. The maximum recorded size was 76 cm and 6.8 kg.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pink_salmon

Sockeye salmon or Red Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka
© www.ecosystema.ru/

Sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, also called red salmon or blueback salmon in the USA, is an anadromous species of salmon found in the Northern Pacific Ocean and rivers discharging into it. There are also completely landlocked populations of the same species, which are known as kokanee or "silver trout." Sockeye salmon is the third most common Pacific salmon species.

Its name in Halkomelem, the language of the indigenous people along the lower reaches of the Fraser River (one of British
Columbia's many native Coast Salish languages). Suk-kegh means red fish.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sockeye_salmon

Chum Salmon, Oncorhynchus keta
Photo: David Sepp, NOAA

The Chum or Keta salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family. It is a Pacific salmon, and may also be known as dog salmon or Keta salmon, and is often marketed under the name Silverbrite salmon
The name Chum salmon comes from the Chinook Jargon term tzum, meaning "spotted" or "marked", while "Keta" comes
from the Evenki language of Eastern Siberia via Russian.

They have an ocean coloration of silvery blue green. When adults are near spawning, they have purple blotchy streaks near
the caudal fin. Spawning males typically grow an elongated snout or kype and have enlarged teeth. Some researchers speculate these characteristics are used to compete for mates.

Most Chum salmon spawn in small streams and intertidal zones. Some Chum travel more than 3,200 km (2,000 mi) up the
Yukon River. The female lays eggs in the redd, the male sprays sperm on the eggs, and the female covers the eggs with gravel. The female can lay up to 4000 eggs.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chum_salmon

Thousands of migratory birds travel from wintering grounds in the Americas, Asia,
and Europe to breed and feed in the region. Seabirds and waterfowl, which form huge bird
colonies along the rocky shores, islets, sandy spits, and estuaries, include nearly 3.3 million
seabirds on the eastern coast of Chukotka peninsula alone..

Amongst those are the Pelagic Cormorants, Phalacrocorax pelagicus, guillemots, Cepphus,
murres, Uria, auklets, Aethia, puffins, , Fratercula, seagulls, Larus, various ducks and waders...

Pelagic Cormorant, Phalacrocorax pelagicus,

Pelagic Cormorant on a nest with chicks that are about four weeks old, in San Luis Obispo, California,
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Phalacrocorax_pelagicus_-San_Luis_Obispo,_California,_USA_-nest-8_(3).jpg

The Pelagic Cormorant, Phalacrocorax pelagicus, also known as Baird's Cormorant, is a small member of the cormorant family Phalacrocoracidae. Analogous to other smallish cormorants, it is also called Pelagic Shag occasionally. This seabird lives along the coasts of the northern Pacific; during winter it can also be found in
the open ocean.

The Pelagic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagicus), also known as Baird's Cormorant, is a small member of the cormorant family Phalacrocoracidae. Analogous to other smallish cormorants, it is also called Pelagic Shag occasionally. This seabird lives along the coasts of the northern Pacific; during winter it can also be found in the open ocean.

Presently, many authors favor splitting up the "wastebin genus" Phalacrocorax. In this case, the Pelagic Cormorant would probably be placed in Compsohalieus.

On land, Pelagic Cormorants are rather clumsy and walk with the high-stepped waddling gait typical for all Sulae except darters; after landing they often scratch the ground, as is typical for cormorants. When they feel threatened, they will dart the bills at the intruder, and shake their heads and make a gargling noise. This bird forages by swimming to locate prey, then diving and going after it underwater, propelled by its feet and steering with the wings. It can dive as deep as 100 ft (30 m) to feed on or near the seafloor.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pelagic_Cormorant

Long-tailed Duck
or Oldsquaw, Clangula hyemalis

Think we were just out a little to early to get a picture of the chicks.
Havelle, Clangula hyemalis
© www.ecosystema.ru/

The Long-tailed Duck or Oldsquaw, Clangula hyemalis, is a medium-sized sea duck. It is the only living member of its genus, Clangula; this was formerly used for the goldeneyes, with the Long-tailed Duck being placed in Harelda.

Adults have white underparts, though the rest of the plumage goes through a complex moulting process.
The male has a long pointed tail (10 to 15 cm) and a dark grey bill crossed by a pink band. In winter, the male has a dark
cheek patch on a mainly white head and neck, a dark breast and mostly white body. In summer, the male is dark on the head,
neck and back with a white cheek patch.

The Long-tailed Duck.
Foto: B. Frantzen/Norsk Polarinstitutt

Their breeding habitat is in tundra pools and marshes, but also along sea coasts and in large mountain lakes in the North Atlantic region, Alaska, northern Canada, northern Europe and Russia. The nest is located on the ground near water;

The Long-tailed Duck breeds often in or near Arctic Tern colonies, and benefit of the terns defenceabilities for the Arctic fox,
Gulls and Skuas.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long-tailed_Duck

Mammals of lowland tundra are usually difficult to see, but Arctic ground squirrels are very tame and often live in towns.

Other mammals living on the arctic tundra includes brunlemen, Lemmus trimucronatus, and arctic lemming, Dicrostonyx torquatus, arctic Fox, Alopex lagopus, snowy owls, Nyctea scandiaca, Rock Ptarmigane, Lagopus mutus(muta),
Snow Goose, Chen caerulescens, all kinds of eiders, Somateria, Long tailed ducks, Clangula hyemalis, (see above)
different seagulls, Larus og snipes, Calidris, skuas, Catharacta, snow buntings , Plectrophenax nivalis,
og Lapland Longspur , Calcarius lapponicus.

Arctic Lemming , Dicrostonyx torquatus

Arctic Lemming , Dicrostonyx torquatus
© http://www.ecosystema.ru/
The Arctic Lemming, Dicrostonyx torquatus is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae. It is found only in The
Arctic Biomes in Russia and Canada.
Inhabits arctic and subarctic tundra and forest-tundra with small Salix spp. bushes. Lives in colonies with simple burrows
along feeding routes; nesting and seed storage chambers used collectively. Activity is multiphase and may occur around
the clock. Feeds on shoots and leaves of willows and birches, and vegetation and berries of cloudberry, great bilberry
and other species. Litters 2-3 times a year with 5-6 young each time. A migratory species.
Source: Tsytsulina, K., Formozov, N. & Sheftel, B. 2008. Dicrostonyx torquatus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 February 2012.

Subarctic tundra.
Chukotka’s subarctic tundra has more vegetation than the more northern tundra, and the river valleys
contain sparse larch stands, willow and poplar forests in riparian areas, and birch. Here plant cover is almost continuous,
interrupted only on steep or windswept slopes. Diverse grass beds rich in lichen, prime feeding grounds for reindeer,
cover the uplands. However, the myriads of insects are also here.....

Grey wolf, Canis lupus
© www.ecosystema.ru/

Normally you will find such animals as grey wolf, arctic wolf ,Canis lupus, stout, Mustela erminea,
hare, Lepus timidus, Arctic ground squirrel, Spermophilus parryi, wood lemmings, Myopus schisticolor,
brown lemmings, Lemmus sibiricus, voles, Microtus, raven, Corvus corax, 1, Rock Ptarmigane, Lagopus lagopus,
Sandhill crane, Grus canadensis, Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons, bean goose, Anser fabalis,
ducks, Anas, seagulls, Larus, Alaskasnipe, Calidris melanotos, polarsisik, Acanthis/Carduelis hornemanni,
snowbuntings and lapland longspurs, Plectrophenax nivalis.

Sandhill crane, Grus canadensis   

Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons
© www.ecosystema.ru/

Wonder who or what scared this one? (Stout)                                   Hare, Lepus timidus
© www.ecosystema.ru/

Sibirian brown lemming
Lemmus sibiricus,
Pohodsk, Yakutia

Woodlemming, Myopus schisticolor
© http://www.ecosystema.ru/

The Siberian Brown Lemming, Lemmus sibiricus is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae.
It is found in Canada, Russian Federation, and United States.It does not hibernate during winter,
because it lives in burrows. It is prey to several animals including the snowy owl and the Arctic fox.

North of the Anadyr-river, there are no wood, just endless tundra and mountains. The possibility for life on the tundra, are dependent of the lemming-years. Every 4-5 years the population of lemmings increases
20.-50 times. In such years, the meat-eating birds and mammals will have many more offspring than usually.
Other animals are also benefiting on the lemming-years, as their natural enemies are distracted by this
'new' enormous lot of prey.

The Wood Lemming, Myopus schisticolor, is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae. It belongs
into the Arvicolinae subfamily of rodents therefore is a relative of the voles, lemmings, and muskrats.
It is found in the taiga biome of China, Finland, Mongolia, Norway, Russia, and Sweden.

Arctic ground squirrel, Spermophilus parryi
© www.ecosystema.ru/

Parasitic Skua or Arctic Jaeger, Stercorarius parasiticus
© www.ecosystema.ru/

Long-tailed Skua,

Parasitic Skua or Arctic Jaeger are amongst the most common birds of prey
on the arctic tundra.
There are three species:
Stercorarius parasiticus, Arctic Skua / Parasitic Jaeger
Stercorarius longicaudus, Long-tailed Skua / Jaeger
Stercorarius pomarinus, Pomarine Skua / Jaeger

Pomarine Skua
Kapp Schmidt.

Long-tailed Skua / Jaeger, Stercorarius longicaudus
© www.ecosystema.ru/

Of the three species, it is the long-tailed skua that is most dependent on lemmings, and the number of this bird is
varying in largely.. The long-tailed skua likes eggs and chickes during summer. All three birds are wellknown thieves of food
from other seabirds.

Forest of the Tundra

The western part of Chukotka few forests, and they consist first of all of Dahuria-lerk og furubusker, Pinus pumila,
og - i elvedalene - vierkratt, Chosenia arbutifolia og popler - poplar (Populus suaveolensis -. Men elvedalene har selvfølgelig enda mere å vise til.

Av alle Kamchatkas skoger, fortjener sibirsk dvergfuru, Pinus pumila spesiell oppmerksomhet.
Nøttene (frøene) fra dens kongler er ikke så store som hos sibirfuru, Pinus sibirica, men desto sunnere;
de blir kraftig høstet og bruk i matveien. Olje presses ut og er en viktig eksportartikkel
Photo courtesy: http://www.kamchatka.org.ru 

Pinus pumila (also known as the Siberian dwarf pine, Dwarf Siberian Pine, Japanese stone pine or Creeping pine) is a
native to northeastern Asia, including the islands of Japan. This shrubby pine ranges from 1–3 m in height, exceptionally
up to 5 m, but may have individual branches that extend farther along the ground in length. In the mountains of northern
Japan, it sometimes hybridises with the related Japanese White Pine (Pinus parviflora); these hybrids (Pinus x hakkodensis)
are larger than P. pumila, reaching 8–10 m tall on occasion.

Nøttekråke,Nucifraga caryocatactes                                                   Gråsisik, Acanthis flammea
© www.ecosystema.ru/

The most common animals here are Brown Bear, Ursus arctos, Canadian Moose, Alces canadensis,Wolverine,
Sobel, Martes zibellina, Hare, småmus, Golden Eagle , Aquila chrysaetos, Northern Goshawk, Accipiter gentilis, Scoter, Melanitta,  Magpie, Pica pica, Spotted Nutcracker, Nucifraga caryocatactes, Wagtails, Motacilla,
Common Redpoll , Acanthis flammea, Warblers, Phylloscopus, larks, Anthus og Bluethroat, Luscinia svecica.

Buethroat, Luscinia svecica 
© www.ecosystema.ru/

Rivers and lakes.

Rivers and lakes. Chukotka’s larger rivers are the Anadyr, Amguema, Greater Anyui, Lesser Anyui, and Omolon.
The rivers freeze over completely, with ice covering them up to eight months a year, and large ice floes at higher elevations
do not melt for years. Snowmelt is the primary source of water for these Arctic rivers, with precipitation and groundwater
as lesser secondary sources. Groundwater, surface water, and precipitation feed the rivers that fl ow into the Pacific.
Riverbeds are rocky with little sediment.

The only amphibian is Siberian salamander, Salamandrella kesserlingii, found in shallow lakes of the south and west.

Siberian salamander, Salamandrella keyserlingii,

Photo: S.L Kuzmin, © PENSOFT Publishers

The Siberian salamander, Salamandrella keyserlingii, is a species of salamander found in Northeast Asia.
It is found primarily in Siberia, in wet woods and riparian groves. There are also outlying populations in northern Kazakhstan
and Mongolia, and also in northeastern China and on the Korean Peninsula. It is believed extirpated from South Korea.
An isolated population exists on Hokkaido, Japan, in the Kushiro Shitsugen National Park. A breeding-ground of Siberian salamanders in Paegam, South Hamgyong, is designated North Korean natural monument #360.

Adults are from 9 to 12.5 centimeters in length. Their bodies are bluish-brown in color, with a purple stripe along the back. There are thin dark brown stripes between and around the eyes, and also sometimes on the tail. There are four clawless
toes on each foot. The tail is longer than the body.

A single egg sac contains 50-80 eggs on average, with a single female typically laying up to 240 eggs in a season. The light-brown eggs hatch three to four weeks after being laid, releasing larval salamanders of 11-12 mm in length.

The species is known for surviving deep freezes, as low as -35 - -40o°C. In some cases they have been known to remain frozen in permafrost for years, and upon thawing, walking off.

44 different fishes lives in rivers and lakes. Salmon is the one used mostly for commercial use.
Twohundredandtwenty - 220 - birdspecies also live hiere.

Pacific Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus divergens

Center: Wallruses at Cape Dezhnyov, Bering Strait, Chukotka 
Two other pictures: USGS

The star attraction is no doubt the Pacific Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus divergens. Unlike the other two sub-species, som
that mainly stays on ice-flakes, this one prefer to invade beaches in large numbers.
You can find many such places in Chukotka during the summer, and also at a few hideout places in Alaska.
During winter they occur in the Eastern Kamchatka and on the Commandor Islands.

© www.ecosystema.ru/
The Walrus is distinct from the earseals and the 'true seals', having its own familyname with only one living specimen.
But there are two subspecimens::
Pacific Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus divergens
Atlantic Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus

More about Walrusses, click here

Black brants,
Anser nigricans,
begynner redebygging
tidlig om våren.
Dixon, Taimyr.

During autumnm many birds leave these northern areas.
A few specimees, as McKay's bunting (P. mckayi), moves actually to
Chukotka for the winter.. Black brants moves from their arctic places to their winterhabitat in America.

The Black Brant or Pacific Brent Goose, Branta bernicla nigricans, is a
sub-species of the Brent Goose that breeds in Alaska and winters in Baja
California. There are an estimated 115,000 black brant in the world and
about 14,000 are taken each year by hunters. Fox predation of eggs is
thought to be significant and, in 2006, the U.S. began a 5-year fox removal
program. The population has been as high as 200,000; in 1981, and as low
as 100,000; in 1987.

Vindskulpturer på spor etter Polarreven
(Vulpes lagopus),
Amderma, Russia

Sommernatt i Dionisiafjellene, Chukotka, Russia.

Part 2.

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All pictures, unless otherwise stated, Copyright © Vladimir Dinets
Source for part of this page: http://urbansustainability.snre.umich.edu/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/RFE.08.pdf


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